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Global invasive plants in Thailand and its status and a case study of Hydrocotyle umbellata L


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Global invasive plants in Thailand and its status
and a case study of Hydrocotyle umbellata L.

Siriporn Zungsontiporn

Weed Science Group, Plant Protection Research and Development Office

Department of Agriculture, Bangkok, Thailand 10900
Summary
Global invasive plant may invade in some countries, but it is not invasive plant in its native country or in range of distribution. Those plants are utilized in some means, such as vegetable, fruit, ornamental plant or medicinal plant in it native country or even it was invasive plant but people learned how to manage with that plant, they can utilize it. On the contrary way, an invasive plant of any country may not be invasive in any country else. Most of the invasive plants are intentionally introduced to a country for some purpose especially for ornamental plant. Hydrocotyle umbrellata L. was introduced to Thailand as ornamental plant, the plant can grow well and with some habit of invasive plant of this plant, nowadays the plant was found in many natural areas as weed.

1. Introduction

Most of invasive plant in an area is alien plant which was introduced from different habitat within a country or other country across geographic barrier. Well development of transportation stimulates traveling and international trading which cause of increasing introduction of alien species. Some of introduced alien plants can establish and spread out if it can adapt itself to survive in the new habitat well. If the environment of new habitat is suitable for it growth, the plant may express it invasiveness and compete for space and nutrient with native plant which it may complete over native plants due to lack of it natural enemy in new habitat. If the invasive plant invades to new area widely it may become noxious weed in that area. In the past there were many invasive plants become noxious weeds out side it native range such as Water hyacinth, Giant sensitive plant, Pennisetum grasses. They were introduced to many countries intentionally for some purposes such as ornamental plant, erosion control, soil improvement, forage fodder.

2. Global invasive plants in Thailand and its status

The Global Invasive Species Database which developed by Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) of the World Conservation Union / Species Survival Committee (IUCN/SSC) under the Global Invasive Species Programme (GISP) had listed 388 species as invasive species. Among these, there are 205 plant species which are 8 algae/seaweed, 33aquatic plants, 1 fern, 26 grass, 35 herb, 2 palm, 1 sedge, 50 shrub, 27 tree, and 22 vine/climber.

Among those 205 of global invasive plants 71 are exist in Thailand. They are 15 aquatic plants, 10 grasses, 6 herbs, 2 palms, 23 shrubs/trees, 13 vine/climbers and 2 shrubs/climbers. About 29 species are known as introduced plants, other are uncertain or no information about introduction. Most of the plants are utilized by some mean, ornamental plant, medicinal plant, etc. Only 10 species are weed without any utilization such as Arundo donax, Lygodium microphyllum, Neyraudia reynaudiana, Polygonum perfoliatum. Pennisetum polystachyon, P. clandestinum etc. (Table 1)

Since agriculture is one of the main task of Thai population. The plants invaded in agricultural area and becomes troublesome or weed for farmer are shown in Table 2


3. Case study of Hydrocotyle umbellata L.
H. umbellata, common name as dollar weed, a member of Apiaceae, was introduced to Thailand as ornamental plant or aquarium plant more than 10 year ago. The plant is attractive for it shiny green round leaf (Fig. 1). Since the plant can propagate easily with stem. New shoot can grow from maxillary bud and seem to be no natural enemy in Thailand. It might be weed in near future. Experiments to evaluate weed potential on this plant were conduced in 2002. They are growth of Dollar weed and competition of Dollar weed and a native plant, Centella asiaitca.

Fig.1 Hydrocotyle umbrellata L.


The result shown that Dollar weed can grow well not only in aquatic condition but also in dry condition (Fig.2). The plant can produce new shoot from stem with young leaf if the stem was cut out from the mother plant by the cut part produce root and then can survive in the water and new branch germinate from the bud between stem and petiole (Fig 3). From 1 leaf at beginning of the experiment, the plant can grow up to 174 leaves within 141 day period. (Fig.4). The plant can compete over the native plant, C. asiatica, a member of same family (Fig.5 and Fig.6). These mean the plant has potential of weed.



Table 1. Global invasive plant in Thailand and its status


Plant name

Common name

Thai name

i

Plant habit

status

Reference

h

s

t

v/c

a

Oth

v

m

o

w

oth

Ablmoschus moschatus

aute toga, algalia, almizcle vegetal, almizcle vegetal, ambretta semi, aukiki, bisameibisch, fau ingo, fau tagaloa, fautia, fou ingo, gombo musqué, gongul, kamang, kamwayang, karereon, metei, musk, musk mallow, o'e'e, okeoke, okra, vakeke, wakeke, wakewake, wakiwaki

chamod ton, Thian chamot, Fai phi


































25, 12

Acacia confusa

- acacia petit feuille, boiffuring, boiffuring, formosa acacia, formosa koa, ianangi, ianángi, mimosa, pilampwoia, shoshigi, shoshigi, small Philippine acacia, soschghi, sosigi, sosigi, sosugi, sosugi, yanangi

Krathin Taiwan

































19

Acacia farnesiana

acacia jaune, aroma, aroma, aromo, aweet acadia, ban baburi, carambuco, cashia, cassie, debena, Ellington curse, Ellington curse, espino blanco, espino ruco, esponja, esponjeira, huisache, huisache dulce, kandaroma, kandaroma, klu, klu, klu bush, kolu, kolu, mimosa, mimosa bush, needle bush, oki, opoponax, popinac, popinac, rayo, Small's acacia, sweet acacia, tekaibakoa, titima, vaivai vakavotona, Westindische akazie

Kra thin thet
































25, 11

Adenanthera pavonina

bead tree, bois de condori, carolina, colales, coral bean tree, culalis, false wili wili, falso-sândalo, kaikes, kolales, kulales, kulalis, la'aulopa, lera, lerendamu, lopa, metekam, metkam, metkem, mwetkwem, olho-de-pavão, paina, peacock flower-fence, peacock tree, pitipitio, pomea, red sandalwood tree, redbeadtree, segavé, telengtúngd, telentundalel, vaivai, vaivainivavalangi

Maklamton, Ma klam ta chang, Mahua daeng

































1, 2, 10, 9

Alternanthera philoxeroides

alligator weed, alligatorweed, pig weed, xi han lian zi cao

phak ped



































Anredera cordifloia

'uala hupe, anredera, enredadera del mosquito, filikafa, Gulf madeiravine, heartleaf madeiravine, lamb's tails, Madeira vine, mignonette vine, parra de Madeira, tapau

phak pang


































1

Antigonon leptopus

chain-of-love, confederate vine, coral bells, coral vine, corallita, dilngau, flores ka'dena, hearts on a chain, kadena de amor, love-vine, Mexican creeper, mountain rose, queen's jewels, rohsapoak, Sandwich Island creeper

Chompu phuang, phuang chomphu
































21,26

Ardisia elliptica

- ati popa'a, shoebutton ardisia

Ram yai, Thulang kasa



































25, 26

Arundo donax

arundo grass, bamboo reed, cana, cane, canne de Provence, carrizo grande, cow cane, donax cane, giant cane, giant reed, narkhat, ngasau ni vavalangi, Pfahlrohr, reedgrass, river cane, Spanisches Rohr, Spanish cane, Spanish reed

O, O luang, O yai



















G















7

Azolla pinnata

ferny azolla, mosquito Fern, water velvet

Nae daeng



































17

Buddleja davidii

arbre aux papillons, buddleia, butterfly bush, orange eye, summer lilac

Racha wadi muang


































26

Cabomba caroliniana

cabomba, Carolina fanwort, Carolina water-shield, fanwort, fish-grass, Washington-grass, Washington-plant

Bua Sarai
































A

15

Caesalpinia decaptetala

bois sappan, cat's claw, kraaldoring, liane croc chien, Mauritius thorn, mauritiusdoring, Mysore thorn, puakelekino, shoofly, ubobo-encane, ufenisi, ulozisi, wait-a-bit

Krachai, Kamchai, Nam khong, Nam chai


































1

Canna indica

achira, African arrowroot, ali‘ipoe, li‘ipoe, apeellap, bakalele, bakare kare, Balisier comestible, balisier rouge, calenda, canna, canna lily, chupa flor, English shot, fa‘i masoa, fagafaga, fagamanu, Fanamanu, gasau ni ga, gwangwa, gwangwaama, Indian shot, luiuenwai, mongos halum-tano, nuaenga, oruuru, pia renga, pia-raroto‘a, poloka, poloke, Queensland arrowroot, riti, te misimisi, tiare papa‘a, toolima, tous-les-mois

Phut tharaksa, Bua lawong, Phutthason

































25, 26

Casurina equisetifolia

chardon penché, musk thistle, nodding plumeless thistle, nodding thistle, plumeless thistle

Son thale

































25, 2,

Ceratophyllum demersom

common hornwort, coon's tail, coon's-tail, coontail, hornwort, rigid hornwort

sarai hang ma, sarai khwai, sarai phungchado
































A

15

Chromolaena odorata

agonoi, bitter bush, chromolaena, hagonoy, herbe du Laos, huluhagonoi, jack in the bush, kesengesil, mahsrihsrihk, masigsig, ngesngesil, otuot, rumput belalang, rumput golkar, rumput putih, Siam weed, Siam-Kraut, triffid weed, wisolmatenrehwei

Sap suea

































25, 14

Cinnamomum camphora

alcanfor, alcanforero, arvore da camphora, campher, camphor laurel, camphor tree, camphre, camphrier, canfora, Japanese camphor, kampferbaum, kuso-no-ki

Karabun, Op choei yuan

































25, 10, 14

Coccinia grandis

, ivy gourd, kiuri awia, kundru, scarlet-fruited gourd

Phak tamlueng

































25, 20, 10, 14

Colubrina asiatica

Asian snakewood, hoop with, Indian snakewood, latherleaf, wild coffee

Khan song



































25, e

Cryptostegia grandiflora

India rubber vine, liane de gatope, palay rubbervine, purple allamanda, rubber vine

Dao Pradap, banburi muang

































25, 26, 6

Dichrostachys cinerea

el marabu, Kalahari-Weihnachtsbaum

Krathin hang kra rok



































25, 12

Eichhornia crassipes

aguapé, bung el ralm, jacinthe d'eau, jacinto de agua, jacinto-aquatico, jal kumbhi, lechuguilla, lila de agua, mbekambekairanga, wasserhyazinthe, water hyacinth

Phak tob




























H

25, 4, 9

Elaeis guineensis

African oil palm, apwiraiasi, dendê, nu tamara, palmeira-dendê, palmier à huile d'Afrique

Pam namman


















P














1, 26

Eugenia uniflora

Barbados cherry, Brazilian cherry, cayenne cherry, Cayennekirsche, cerese à côtes, cereza quadrada, cerezo de Cayena, cerise carée, cerise de Cayenne, cerise de pays, cerises-cotes, cerisier carré, cerisier de Cayenne, Florida cherry, French cherry, guinda, kafika, kafika palangi, kafika papalangi, menemene, monkie monkie kersie, nagapiry, ñanga-piré, pendanga, pitanga, pitanga-da-praia, red Brazil cherry, Surinaamsche kersh, Surinam cherry, Surinamkirsche, venevene, zoete kers

Mayom farang

































26

Gymnocoronis spilanthoides

Senegal teaplant, temple plant

Phak bung




































Hiptage benghalensis

adimurtte, adirganti, atimukta, benghalen-Liane, chandravalli, haldavel, hiptage, kampti, kamuka, liane de cerf, madhalata, madhavi, Madhavi, Madhavi, madhumalati, madmalati, ragotpiti, vasantduti

Nora

































3, 12, 26

Houttuynia cordata

ch'I, chameleon-plant, chu ts'ai, doku-dami, dokudami, houttuynia, vap ca, yu hsing ts'ao, yu xing cao, zyuyaku

Phak khao thong


































10, 6, 22
  1   2


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