First came a charming one who was so cultured he brought the knife killed a White Serpent built the nation and stood tall 1) Gao1 Zu3(great great grandfather) 高祖 Liu2 Bang1(nation, state country) 刘邦 Short: Emperor Gao1 (高帝), Gao Huangdi (高皇帝)Given Name: Ji 季, 206 ━ 195 BC who arose from the peasant class he looked like a dragon, there was lightning before born. Did not hurt civilians, but was strict. Beat Xiang yu(Hua's nephew to fight Qin so Xiangyu tried to kill in a 5 year contention. Then there was the Honggou treaty which Liu broke. Became Confucian after Lu Gu inspired him. Wanted Liu Ruyi son of a concubine to be next emperor but 4 wise men convinced him to let his son Liu Ying be emperor. Instituted having a male lover., then came his second son whose kindness had a surplus of 2) Hui4 Di4 惠帝 Liu2 Ying2 刘盈. He tried to protect his younger half brother, Ruyi, Prince Yin of Zhao from being murdered by Empress Dowager Lu, but failed then engaged in drinking and women and died at a young age. His wife was his niece Zhang Yan and they had no children..so Empress Dowager Lu installed two of his sons Liu Gong and Liu Hong (known collectively as Emperors Shao of Han) from concubines. Tried to save Liu Ruyi. 3) Shao Di 少帝 Liu 2Gong 1(respectful)刘恭 188 ━ 184 BC Liu Gong (刘恭) (d. 184 BC), also referred to as Emperor Qianshao of Han (汉前少帝) made a mistake that Hui’s wife Zhang Yan, Empress Dowager imprisoned him then LATER had him disposed and put to death. 4) Shao Di 4少帝 Liu2 Hong 2(magnificent)刘弘 184 ━ 180 BC Emperor Houshao of Han (d. 180 BC). Was put to death similarly to Liu Gong for saying Zhang Yan was not his true mother. After Empress Dowager Lu died, the calendar was not reset and in her will she wanted her nephew’s daughter Lu Chan 吕产,to marry him, but also it stated in her will that she wanted him disposed. Imperial officials, Chen Ping (陈平) and Zhou Bo (周勃) conspired and killed the Lu clan. After some dispute, they settled on Emperor Houshao's uncle, Prince Liu Heng of Dai. 5) Wen2 Di4 文帝 Liu 2Heng2(permanent, long lasting) 刘恒 179 ━ 157 BC (Houyuan Era 后元)163 ━ 156 BC Emperor Wen of Han (202 BC━157 BC) He was the son of Gao (Liu Bang) and hi consort Bo, who had no powerful relatives and whose clan was known for its humility and thoughtfulness. His reign brought much needed political stability. With his Taoist wife Dou he sought to reduce wasteful expenditures. His grandson Wu brought prosperity and started using era names. Governed with non-interfference and relaxed laws: 1) no imprisonment for relatives of criminals, 2) instituted government welfare program. He abolished corporal punishments of cutting off nose and feet and started whipping but that caused more deaths. Continued heqin to the Xiongnu. Maybe wanted to install wiser ruler by principal of shan4rang4禅让. Reduced mourning periods to 3 days, let concubines without children to return home and not guard emperor’s tomb all their lives. He was one of the most benevolent rulers in Chinese history. Was superstitious with sorcer Xinyuan Ping (新垣平, but he was found to be a fraud and him and his clan were put to death. 6) Jing3 Di4 景帝 Liu2 Qi 3刘启 156 ━ 141 BC (Zhongyuan Era 中元 149 ━ 143 BC, Houyuan Era 后元 143 ━ 141 BC, Jianyuan Era 建元 140 ━ 135 BC, Yuanguang Era 元光 134 ━ 129 BC, Yuanshuo Era 元朔 128 ━ 123 BC, Yuanshou Era 元狩 122 ━ 117 BC, Yuanding Era 元鼎 116 ━ 111 BC) Eldest son of Wen. Emperor Jing of Han (188 BC━141 BC) Because of the curtailment of the power of feudal princes the Rebellion of the Seven States began in 154BC. He crushed them and took away their ability to have ministers which allowed his son Wu to succeed. He continued noninterference and reduced taxes but he was ungrateful and harsh to Zhou Yafu and wife Bo. Reduced the whipping that Wen started. Continued heqin to Xiongnu. He killed Liu Xian son of Liu Pi (nephew of Gao) by throwing the liubo (divination)wood board game at him and thus created enemies with the state of Wu (S. Jiangsu, N. Zhejiang). Caused Zhou Yafu to commit suicide by accusing him of treason for his son buying armor and weapons to use for burial reasons. Jing was buried at Yangling pyramidal mausoleum in Chang'an. He promoted further practice of Taoism (7) Wu3 Di4 武帝 Liu2 Che4 刘彻 140 ━ 87 BC (Yuanfeng Era 元封 110 ━ 105 BC, Taichu Era 太初 104 ━ 101 BC, Tianhan Era 天汉 100 ━ 97 BC, Taishi Era 太始 96 ━ 93 BC, Zhenghe Era 征和 92 BC ━ 89 BC, Houyuan Era 后元 88 ━ 87 BC, Shiyuan Era 始元86 ━ 80 BC) Emperor Wu of Han 汉武帝(156 BC━29 March, 87 BC), personal name Liu Che (刘彻) Was called Liu Zhi (刘彘) before Liu Che because of Jing’s dream of a scarlet boar. Known for vast expansion of land(to Kyrgyzstan , to N. Korea, to N. Vietnam) and Confucianism. Ordered first census of Chinese history. Reigned the longest until Kangxi (1800 yrs LATER). Started imperial examination system. He loved his wife, Chen Jiao and wanted to build her a gold house but she bore no sons. After this he got his favorite concubine Wei Zifu a daughter of one of his sister’s Princess Pingyang servants. This caused Chen to attempt suicide many times. Defeated Xiongnu in central inner Mongolia and in Gansu due to WeiQing’s (brother of concubine Weizifu) success. Pursued immortality. Sent Zhangqian to Xiyi 西域(Xin Jiang) who was captured twice but promoted peace) . Appointed leaders who favored harsh punishment of Xiongnu. Expanded China to twice its size permanently surpassing that of contemporaneous Rome. Famed historian Sima Qian castrated by Wu. Wrote poetry. Witchcraft hunts which killed tens of thousands. Crown Prince Ju (oldest son from concubine Wei)Revolt. 8) Zhao1 Di 4昭帝 Liu2 Fu2ling 2刘弗陵 86 ━ 74 BC (Yuanfeng Era 元凤 80 ━ 75 BC, Yuanping Era 元平 74 BC) Emperor Zhao of Han (94 BC━74 BC) Youngest son of Wu. Born by his concubine Zhao. Dies at age 20. created peace by lowering government spending. Huo Guang was regent. Prince Dan of Yan (second eldest son of Wu after Ju) tried to cause a rebellion because of chosen prince Fuling. struggle between Shangguan and Huo (regents and coregents).Huo succeded. 9) The Prince of Chang1yi4昌邑王 or 海昏侯 Liu2 He4劉賀 74 BC (Yuanping Era 元平 74 BC, Benshi Era 本始 73 BC – 70 BC, Dijie Era 地節 69 – 66 BC, Yuankang Era 元康 65 – 61 BC) Prince He of Changyi 邑王賀 (d. 59 BC) was an emperor of the Chinese Han Dynasty for 27 days in 74 BC. Did not mourn when emperor Wu died. Engaged with people of vulgar ways and wasteful spending. Desposed after 27 days for 1127 misconducts for eating meat, and having sex and playing games in time of mourning. He was exiled back to Changyi. 10) Xuan1(announced) Di4 宣帝 Liu Xun2(ask/inquire) 刘询73 – 49 BC (Shenjue Era 神爵 61 – 58 BC, Wufeng Era 五鳳 57 – 54 BC, Ganlu Era 甘露 53 – 50 BC, Huanglong Era 黃龍 49 BC, Chuyuan Era 初元 48 – 44 BC) Emperor Xuan of Han (91 BC–49 BC) He was son of Liu Jin (劉進) who was son of Prince Liu Ju. Emperor Xuan has been considered a hardworking and brilliant emperor. Because Xuan grew up as a commoner, he thoroughly understood the suffering of his people. He lowered taxes, liberalized the government and employed capable ministers to the government. In addition Emperor Xuan was open to suggestions, was a good judge of character, and consolidated his power by eliminating corrupt officials, including the Huo family . His wife the empress Xu Pingjun was poisoned and died after she gave birth to Liu Shi by Huo’s wife Xian then Xian became Empress. LATER this was discovered then Xuan executed all the Huos. LATER he chose an unpopular childless EmpressListened to generals make decisions. He rewarded all those who helped in his upbringing. Decided not to attack the Xiongnu after a civil war that broke them into 3 . This was good because they allied with the Han. Was deathly ill before he died. 11) Yuan2(original) Di4 元帝 Liu2 Shi4 刘□ 48 ━ 33 BC (Yongguang Era 永光 43 ━ 39 BC, Jianzhao Era 建昭 38 ━ 34 B 48 – 33 BC (Yongguang Era 永光 43 – 39 BC, Jianzhao Era 建昭 38 – 34 BC, Jingning Era 竟寧 33 BC, Jianshi Era 建始 32 – 28 BC, Heping Era 河平 28 – 25 BC, Yangshuo Era 陽朔 24 – 21 BC) Emperor Yuan of Han (75 BC–33 BC) Father was Xuan. Instituted Confucianism in government. Trusting corrupt officials which caused fractionalization of Han. Confucianism caused divison into two factions: court faction and Confucian faction. Made good relations with Xiongnu after conquering the Chanyu Zhizhi in Kangju. He was a relatively non womanizing emperor. 12) Cheng2(establish/become) Di4 成帝 Liu Ao4(a good horse/steed 32 – 7 BC (Hongjia Era 鴻嘉 20 – 17 BC, Yongshi Era 永始 16 – 13 BC, Yuanyan Era 元延 12 – 9 BC, Sui2he Era 綏和 8 – 7 BC Emperor Cheng of Han (51 BC–7 BC) Broke Gao’s rule that only those who contributed to the empire could appoint Marquesses by appointing 6 uncles (Dowager Wang’s brothers) as marquessses. Three served as supreme commanders of the armed forces. He was a womanizer. His Empress was Xu (from clan of his murdered grandmother) and he had many consorts. The Zhao sisters were his consorts and they disposed Xu for witchcraft. But unfortunately he could not bear a son. Cheng died suddenly in 7 BC, apparently from a stroke (although historians also report the possibility of an overdosage of aphrodisiacs given to him by Consort Zhao Hede). One Zhao sister Zhao Hede killed his infant sons after having tacit agreement with him. 13) Ai1(grief/sorow) Di4 哀帝 Liu2 Xin1(glad/happy/joyful) 刘欣6 – 1 BC (Jianping Era 建平 6 – 3 BC, Yuanshou Era 元壽 2 – 1 BC) Emperor Ai of Han (27 BC–1 BC) He was nephew of Emperor Cheng. He was intelligent and capable but corruption grew and taxes were high. He was controlled by Grand Empress Dowager Fu (but she was never an empress before) until 2BC. He was the highest of homosexuals with Dong Xian (cut off his sleeve rather than wake him). Reduced spending. Infighting between 4 Dowagers. Ai married Dong Xian and promoted him and his family to high posts and him to supreme commander taking power from the Fus and Dings. He wanted him to succeed as emperor. But Wang Mang came back instead. The Wangs which were wiped out LATER were yearned by the people to be returned. Ai died by a sickness he had most of his life and died childless. 14Ping2(plat/peaceful/calm/average)Di4 平帝 Liu2 Kan4 刘□ 1 BC – 5 AD (Yuanshi Era 元始 1 BC – 5 AD) Emperor Ping (9 BC – February 3, AD 6) The cousin of Emperor Ai. Wang Mang appointed the consort to Ping and he LATER poisoned Ping. Wang Mang seized power and wanted a return to the old Zhou, Shang, and Xia dynasties. Wang Mang hungry for power raised his title to Duke and lowered others titles (Wei’s) and changed Ping’s name to Kan. He asked that Ping marry his daughter but then denied it while petitioning the people who then forced it to happen by pressure of the people. His son Wang Yu (王宇) and followers conspired and were caught and killed. Wang used ancient way of 9 bestowments when throne is usurped. Wang poisoned the peppered wine that chases away evil spirits and then wrote a petition that he would sacrifice his life for Ping’s in case it didn’t work. Ping died a few days LATER. 15) Ru2zi3(child) Ying1(infant)孺子婴 Liu2 Ying1(baby/infant) 刘婴刘婴 6 ━ 8 (Jushe Era 居摄 6 ━ Oct. 8, Chushi Era 初始 Nov. 8 ━ Dec. 8) Emperor Ruzi of Han (AD 5 ━ AD 25), commonly known as "Ying the Kid" 孺子婴 and with the personal name of Liu Ying (刘婴) Disposed at a young age by WangMang who formed the Xin Dynasty and then LATER died when the Han were restored. He was so locked up, he did not even know the names of common animals. He was known as a victim of circumstances.
1) Wang Mang (王莽) Nationalized gold. Issued 28 different cions which halted the economy. Dissolved large estates and gave to taxpayers (Wang2tian2 王田)which caused aristocrat uprising. He was arrogant and faux pas to his tributaries. Yellow river changed course to flow south. This led to the Chime Rebellion or Red Eyebrow Rebellion. N 23AD Chang’an was ransacked. WangMang died in battle. He established Zhou system of 5 grades of nobility. He replaced the Earthly Branches with the Heavenly Stems system to number the years. Abolished slave trading.Instituted sloth tax to give textiles if lazy. Created problems with the Xiongyu and SW tribes when he refused to be pay them tribute. Created problems with Koreans by taking soldiers and tricking their leader and killing him and changing their Marquess name from Gaojuli (高句骊 to Xiajulater Which greatly offended them and they attacked more frequently. Wang also offended the dual kingdom of the Xiyu which then divided the Xin into two armies with one completely wiped out and the other cutoff in Xinjiang for the remainder of the dynasty. He had officials research old legends rather than concentrate on current affairs. He did not trust his subordinates and there was no salary for his officials (compared to the efficient one for the Hans) for the entire dynasty. Wang’s 2nd son Wang Lin had an affair with the same concubine Yuan2 (original)Bi 4(jade)(原碧) and then after Lin conspired to kill Wang after he took away his crown status and after Wang’s Empress died., but Wang forced him to commit suicide. Shortly after his first son Wang An died to, but Wang had two other sons by his servants. Wang defeated in overwhelming force in Kunyang a small city. Then Emperor Gengshi led a force against Luoyang and Chang’an. Wang’s body was cut into many pieces
2) 2) Continuation of Han Dynasty Geng4(more) Shi3(start)Di4 更始帝 Liu2Xuan2 (black/profound/unreliable/profound) 刘玄 23 ━ 25 ( Gengshi Era 更始 23 ━ 25) A weak an incompetent ruler who ruled a brief time and then was LATER strangled after the Chimei conquered the dynasty. Worked together with Liu Yan and Liu Xiu to attack Wang Mang. After he became emperor , Liu Ji4(holy grain) (刘稷) was so critical of Geng and wanted Liu Yan to be emperor so Geng executed him and Liu Yan. Moved capital first to Luoyang then to Chang’an but was generally mistrusted. Chimei decided to attack and divided into two armies. They easily defeated every force Geng sent to attack them. Liu Xiu turned against Emperor Geng and declared himself emperor in the East. Geng sent a force to kill Ruzi in Qingyang, Gansu.. When trapped by the Chimei forces many generals , one of which Zhang1(open) Ang2(hold up one's head) (张昂) tried to kidnap Geng and Geng fleed. The Chimei declared their own emperaor 15-year-old Liu Penzi, who was a descendant of Liu Zhang the Prince of Chengyang.. Zhang of Chnag’an surrendered with the Chimei and together easily attacked it. When Liu Xiu heard of Chang’an’s fall he made him the Prince of Huaiyang.. His old general Yan escorted him back to Chang’an to offer Penzi his sealater Liu Gong who was the oplder brother of Penzi could persuade them not to kill him for a little while but one of Pensi’s generals Xie4(thank) Lu4(official's salary) (谢禄) strangled him after persuaded by ZhangAng afraid for his return to power because the people missed him now that the Chimei were in power.
E. Han Dynasty:
Guang1 Wu3 Di4 光武帝 Liu Xiu4(elegant/beautiful/put forth flowers or ears) 刘秀 25 ━ 57 (Jian4wu3 Era 建武 25 ━ 56, Jianwuzhongyuan Era 建武中元 56 ━ 57) Destroyed Chimei and unified all of China in AD 36 The husband of his sister Liu Yuan (刘元 believed in a prophecy that somebody named Liu Xiu would be emperor.. Liu Xiu, had an ambitious brother, Liu Yan, who rebelled against the Xin. Liu Xiu descended fro emperor Jing of W. Han 6 generations ahead. Geng was his third cousin. Liu was instrumental in the success of the battle of Kunyang. Gengshi killed his brother Liu Yan. When Geng moved the capital to LuoYang he had Liu rebuild the palaces. LATER Geng sent him to pacify rebles north of the Yellow river. He met Deng4 Yu3 (邓禹 one who LATER would be prime minister who tried to persuade him to be independent. Geng Yan (耿□ who helped Liu Xiu fight off Wang Lang (王郎),(one who claimed to be Liu Ziyu2(carriage/territory) (刘子舆) who claimed to be a son of a consort of Emperor Cheng.) also tried to persuade Liu to be independent, but still Liu refused resolved to pacify the empire. After this he hired only officials loyal to him and not Gengshi then he proclaimed himself emperor Guangwu. He blocked and then exhausted out the Chimei forces sparing them afterwards. He was a brilliant strategist and he reunified China first by beggin enemies to submit and then going to conquer them. He kept the relationships in the military very well by not giving them too much power and also rewarding them well(unmatched until Emperor Taizu of Song (Zhao Kuangyin. He married his childhood sweetheart Yin Lihua., but she was not Empress until he first married Guo Shengtong (郭圣通 as a political marriage making her empress having a son by her then LATER disposing her due to not liking her as well as their son Liu Jiang1(border) (刘疆 who was crown prince after he agreed. 2) Ming2 Di4 明帝 Liu Zhuang1(serious/village) 刘庄 58 ━ 75 (Yongping 永平 58 ━ 75, Jianchu 建初 76 ━ 84) Emperor Ming (28-75) Buddhism began spreading at this time after he had a dream of golden men he sent a delegation to India. Built first Buddhist temple, white horse(for the horse that traveled to India). He was hardworking and had much integrity and demanded integrity of others , but he punished everybody with death. The killed 10000s of people because of one conspiracy against him. The time of Ming and his son Zhang was considered the golden age of the E. Han Dynasty. Very intelligent as Duke of Donghai. Ming’s first love Yin Linhua waited while he married strategically Guo Shengtong. When Guo became jealous of Guangwu’s fondness with Yang Guangwu, the son of Ming and Yin, he had her disposed. Liu Yangs’s name was changed to Liu Zhuang because there were too many Yangs( meaning “sun”). Zhuang’s empress would be Ma Yuan’s daughter but never bore him a son. Her niece Jia was a consort too but she did bore a son, Liu Da. He LATER became crown prince. He honored his brothers. Built a Confucian school, the first Imperial school, in Luoyang for the children of Marquesses, and high officials. His brother Prince Jing was forced to commit suicide after rebelling once and using warlocks against Ming. Prince Ying of Chu hired warlocks to make gold turtles and jade cranes, a big taboo, so was exiled but given a fiefdom. His “conpirators” who were innocent and numbered in the 10,000s were executed. Prince Yan of Huaiyang also used warlocks against Ming, many of his associates were killed but he lived. With his general Ban Chao’s help he allied with the S. Xiongnu and Xiyu against the N. Xiongnu. 3) Zhang1(rules) Di4 章帝 Liu Da2 刘□ 76 ━ 88 Yuanhe 元和 84 ━ 87 (Zhanghe Era 章和 87 ━ 88) He was hardworking and diligent and reduced taxes. He reduced government spending and promoted Confucianism and the country prospered as part of the golden E. Han Ming and Zhuang period.. Because he bestowed power for both his adotive mother Empress Ma’s clan and his wife Empress Dou’s clan the LATER dynasty was in internal strife. He was created crown prince by Zhuang even though he had 4 brothers older than him. He was more lenient than his father Ming. Empress Dou, jealous of the elder Song sister who was consort to Zhang and whose son Liu Qing was crown prince, wanted her adopted son Liu Zhao , son of Consort Liang, to be prince so she falsely accused Song of using cuscuta to do witchcraft. Zhang was enraged so he expelled Crown Prince Qing then Liu Zhao became emperor. The Dou’s LATER destroyed the Liangs when they saw they were happy out of jealousy. This marked the beginning of when Empresses had more power than Dowagers. The Qiangs, mistreated by the Han, first began rebelling at this time and then LATER rebelled more and more leading to the future Han’s destruction. 4) He Di 和帝 Liu2 Zhao4 (commence)刘肇 89 ━ 105 (Yongyuan Era 永元 89 ━ 105, Yuanxing Era 元兴 105) (79 - February 13, 105) Used help of desposed crown prince Liu Qing, his brother Liu Kang (刘伉, and eunuch Zheng Zhong to attack Dowager Dou’s brothers and Dou associates including historian Ban Gu and ordered them to commit suicide, Ban Chao’s brother(in Xiyu). Eunuchs became powerful at this time. He was kind and gentle with the kingdom free from major corruption, but lacked Zhang’s and Mings ability in governing. Paper invented in 105 by eunuch Cai Lun, who interrogated the Song sisters. . The Han dynasty had succession issues with having no male heirs. All but 2 of He’s sons died before he died. Dou Xian, one of the 4 brothers of Dowager Dou was very arrogant and he defeated the N. Xiongnu. After he discovered Liang was his mother, he rewarded the clan well and they became the most powerful in Han aristocracy. He created consort Yin (ancestor of Yin Lihua) empress who was jealous of Consort Deng Sui, who also came from a noble lineage, as the granddaughter of Emperor Guangwu's prime minister Deng Yu (邓禹). Yin and her grandmother, Deng Zhu (邓朱) were accused of using witchcraft. Yin was desposed and Deng became empress. His sons never lived long because of illness, but Liu Sheng (刘胜) and Liu Long (刘隆) were his sons with unknown mothers. Deng made Liu Long emperor but he died at age one. Deng thinking Liu Sheng would resent her made Prince Qing's son Liu Hu (刘祜) emperor, as Emperor An. 5) Shang1(die young) Di4 殇帝 Liu Long2(prosperous) 刘隆 106 (Yanping Era 延平 9 months in 106, Yongchu Era 永初 107 ━ 113, Yuanchu Era 元初 114 ━ 120) On the throne at only age 100 days. Died at age one. Dowager Deng also kept Liu Hu4(blessing) (刘祜), the twelve-year old cousin of Shangdi and future Emperor An of Han in the capital Luoyang as insurance against the baby emperor's death. Liu Hu ascended to the throne when Emperor Shang died in August or September 106; however, Dowager Deng still remained as the regent for the teenager Emperor An. A decree by Empress Dowager Deng during this reign shed light on bureaucratic inefficiency. Prince Hu was the son of Prince Qing of Qinghe─who was once a crown prince under Emperor He's father Emperor Zhang but was deposed due to machinations of Emperor Zhang's wife Empress Dou. Therefore, he was viewed by some as the rightful heir. After Emperor Shang died the officials had by this time realized that Prince Sheng, his older brother, was not as ill as originally thought, and wanted to make him emperor. However, Empress Dowager Deng was concerned that he might bear a grudge at not being made emperor before his brother, and therefore insisted on making Emperor Shang's cousin Prince Hu emperor instead, and he took the throne as Emperor An. 6)An1 Di 4 安帝 Liu Hu4(blessing/bless) 刘祜 106 ━ 125 (Yongning Era 永宁 120 ━ 121, Jianguang Era 建光 121 ━ 122, Yanguang Era 延光 122 ━ 125) Emperor An of Han (94-125) He was the grandson of Emperor Zhang. Empress Dowager Deng still remained as the regent until her death in 121. Thereafter, Emperor An removed many of her relatives from government, and many of them committed suicide, probably under duress. Emperor An did little to revive the withering dynasty. He began to indulge himself in women and heavy drinking and paid little attention to affairs of state, instead leaving matters to corrupt eunuchs. Deng considered replacing the emperor with his cousin Liu Yi4(airplane/wing of a plane/assist a ruler) (刘翼), the Prince of Pingyuan, but then decided against it In this way, he effectively became the first emperor in Han history to encourage corruption. He also trusted his wife Empress Yan2(gate of a lane) Ji1 (阎姬) , whom he created empress in 115─even though she had poisoned to death one of his other consorts, Consort Li, who had given birth to his only son Liu Bao3 (刘保) in 115, and her family deeply, despite their obvious corruption. At the same time, droughts ravaged the country while peasants rose up in arms. In 125, Emperor An died while travelling to Nanyang. He was only 31. He was born in 94, to Prince Liu Qing of Qinghe and his concubine, Consort Zuo3 Xiao3 E2 (左小娥) Xiao E was particularly known for her knowledge in history and poetry and was beautifulater After she died Prince Hu was raised by Prince Qing's wife, Consort Geng3 (耿姬). Late in 121, he stripped members of the Deng clan of their posts and fiefs, and many of them committed suicide, probably under duress. LATER, he relented and allowed some of the survivors to return, but by that time the Deng clan had been decimated. In the place of the Dengs, the Song clan of Emperor An's grandmother became honored, but wielding much more actual power were the clan of the empress, the Yans. Empress Yan who did not want Bao to be emperor because he was not her real son tried to accuse him falsely of crimes and then An demoted him to Prince of Jiyin, Some eunuchs loyal to Prince Bao, led by Sun Cheng, carried out a coup d'etat and made Prince Bao emperor (as Emperor Shun). The Yans were slaughtered, except for Empress Dowager Yan. 7) Shao Di, the Marquess of Bei3xiang1少帝 or 北乡侯 Liu Yi4(exemplary) 刘懿 125 (Yanguang Era 延光 125, Yongjia Era 永建 126 ━ 132, Yangjia1(good/fine/praise) Era 阳嘉 132 ━ 135) A grandson of Emperor Zhang and Emperor An's cousin, emperor younger than Bao who was 10 at the time. He died LATER the same year. A eunuch coup led by Sun Cheng2(rule/journey) (孙程)in favour of Emperor Shun overthrew the regime of Empress Dowager Yan, who put him on the throne and installed Bao(Shun). Born in Beijing. The Yans were slaughtered, except for Empress Dowager Yan, who was however rendered powerless. 8) Shun4(in same direction/agreeable) Di4 顺帝 Liu2 Bao3(protect) 刘保 125 ━ 144 (Yong3he Era 永和 136 ━ 141, Hanan Era 汉安 142 ━ 144, Jiankang Era 建康 144) The only son of Emperor An at the age of 10. He was mild and incompetent. Corruption continued with eunuchs. He trusted his wife Empress Liang Na's father Liang Shang (梁商) -- a mild-mannered man with integrity but little ability. ─and then Liang Shang's son Liang Ji -- a corrupt and an autocratic man. The eunuch Sun Cheng was loyal to Prince Bao, but Bao ousted him when he wanted too much reform. After Ban Yong, the son of general Bao Chao was falsely accused of being late in a military action and removed from his office, the Xiyu situation became worse. Eunuch –marquesses began having their sons inherit their marches at this time. The Qiang annihilated force by Ma Xian and set fire to the W. Han tombs. In 144, apparently already ill, Emperor Shun created his only son Liu Bing (刘炳), born of his concubine Consort Yu, to be crown Prince. Dowager Liang served as regent. 9) Chong D 冲帝 Liu Bing3(bright/splendid/remarkable) 刘炳 144 ━ 145 (Yongjia Era 永嘉 145) Ascended the throne at age one. Liang Ji (the corrupt commander of Liu Bao’s time persuaded Empress Dowager Liang to make the seven-year-old Prince Zuan as emperor (as Emperor Zhi) when choosing between him and Liu Suan (刘蒜), the Prince of Qinghe after Chong died at less than 3 years old. 10) Zhi4(material/nature) Di 质帝 Liu Zuan3(inherit) 刘缵 145 ━ 146 (Benchu Era 本初 146, Jianhe Era 建和 147 ━ 149, Heping Era 和平 150, Yuanjia Era 元嘉 151 ━ 153) Greatgrandson of Emperor Zhang.He was third cousin of Chong. He was only 7 when he became emperor. He was very intelligent and hated Liang ji for having too much power. Liang Ji poisoned him to death at the age of 3. He was born to Liu Hong (刘鸿), the Prince of Le'an, and his wife Consort Chen, in 138. Dowager Liang entrusted mush power to honest official Li Gu (李固) who investigated Zuan’s poisoning. The officials were again largely in favor of Prince Suan, but Liang Ji was still concerned about how he would be difficult to controlater Rather, he persuaded Empress Dowager Liang to make the 14-year-old Liu Zhi (刘志), the Marquess of Liwu, a great-grandson of Emperor Zhang, to whom Liang Ji's younger sister Liang Nuying (梁女莹) was betrothed, emperor (as Emperor Huan) . His mother was Consort Chen. 11) Huan2 Di4桓帝 Liu Zhi4(will/mind) 刘志 146 ━ 168 (Yongxing Era 永兴 153 ━ 154, Yongshou Era 永寿 155 ━ 158, Yanxi Era 延熹 158 ━ 167, Yongkang Era 永康 167, Jianning Era 建宁 168 ━ 172) After Emperor Zhi was poisoned to death by the powerful official Liang Ji in 146, Liang Ji persuaded his sister, the regent Empress Dowager Liang to make the 14-year-old Liu Zhi, the Marquess of Liwu, who was betrothed to their sister Liang Nuying2 (lustrous/transparent) (梁女莹), emperor. Used Eunuchs power to eliminate Liangji and the Liangs, but after this 5 powerful corrupt eunuchs controlled the empire Corruption reached boiling point and university students protested corruption but Huan put down the protest. Died at age 36. Liu Zhi was born in 132, to Liu Yi (刘翼), the Marquess of Liwu, and his concubine Yan Ming (□明). Empress Liang was wasteful in her luxurious living, far exceeding any past empress, and was exceedingly jealous. She did not have a son, and because she did not want any other imperial consorts to have sons, if one became pregnant, Empress Liang would find some way to murder her. Emperor Huan did not dare to react to her due to Liang Ji's power, but rarely had sexual relations with her. In 159, angry and depressed that she had lost her husband's favor, Empress Liang died. That would start a chain of events that would lead to Liang Ji's downfall LATER that year. After Liang Ji's death, Emperor Huan created Liang Mengnu empress, but disliked her family name, and therefore ordered her to take the family name Bo (薄). LATER, he found out that her original family name was actually Deng, and therefore had her family name restored. LATER that year, apparently tired of Empress Deng and sick of her disputes with a favorite consort of his, Consort Guo, Emperor Huan deposed and imprisoned her. She died in anger, and several of her family members were executed. He wanted to create another consort, Tian Sheng (田圣) empress, but officials opposed on the basis that she was of lowly birth, and recommended that he create Consort Dou Miao (窦妙), the daughter of Dou Wu (窦武), a Confucian scholar and a descendant of Dou Rong (窦融), who had contributed much to the establishment of the E. Han Dynasty, empress. Even though he did not favor Consort Dou, Emperor Huan gave in to pressure and created her empress.
12) Ling2(quick/smart) Di4灵帝 Liu Hong2(great/magnificent) 刘宏168 ━ 189 (Xi1(dawn/brightness)ping2 熹平 172 ━ 178, Guanghe Era 光和 178 ━ 184, Zhongping Era 中平 184 ━ 189) He was a great-great-grandson of Emperor Zhang. The Yellow Turban Rebellion broke out during Emperor Ling's reign. Emperor Ling's reign saw yet another repetition of government domination by corrupt eunuchs. Emperor Ling, even after he grew to adulthood, was not interested in governmental affairs, instead indulged himself in women and a decadent lifestyle. Emperor Ling died in 189 at the age of 34, after reigning for 21 years. When Emperor Huan died in 168 without a son to be heir, his wife Empress Dou Miao became empress dowager and regent, and she examined the rolls of the imperial clan to consider the next emperor. For reasons unknown, her assistant Liu Shu (刘□) recommended Marquess Hong, and after consulting with her father Dou Wu and the Confucian scholar official Chen Fan, Empress Dowager Dou made him emperor, at age 12. The empress dowager's father Dou Wu and Chen became the most important officials in the imperial government, and they sought to purge the government of eunuch influences but the eunuchs kidnapped Dowager Dou and the emperor and killed Chen then Dou Wu committed suicide. Dowager Dou, under house arrest died. A vandal wrote on the place door after she died: “All that is under the heaven is in upheavalater Cao and Wang murdered the empress dowager. “ The eunuchs Cao Jie (曹节) and Wang Fu (王甫), became the most powerful individuals in the imperial government and investigated and wiped out the Liu clan. He made empress Song empress but LATER imprisoned and died because the Eunuchs accused her of witchcraft against Ling because her aunt was Liu Li (刘悝), the Prince of Bohai, Emperor Huan’s brother who died in the investigation, In 180, Emperor Ling created Consort He as the new empress and made her brother He Jin a key official in his government. (According to legends, she was initially selected as an imperial consort because her family bribed the eunuchs.) She received the empress position because she had given birth to Emperor Ling's son Liu Bian (刘辩). Ling sold offices to the people for money which greatly weakened the empire. The Yellow Turbans were a Taoist movement led by Zhangjiao who claimed he could heal the sick and he created a rebellion with 36 military commanders and set up a shadow government,He said the blue heaven is dead and the yellow heaven is coming into being. To occur on the first year , Jiazi. The people wore yellow turbans. Emperor Ling sent out a number of military commanders against the Yellow Turbans, and in these campaigns several of them distinguished themselves -- including Huangfu Song, Cao Cao, Fu Xie (傅燮), Zhu Jun, Lu Zhi, and Dong Zhuo. 13) Shao Di, the Prince of Hong2(great)nong2(peasant)少帝 or 弘农王 Liu Bian4(disagree) 刘辩189 Guangxi Era 光熹 189, Zhaoning Era 昭宁 189, Yonghan 永汉 189, Chuping 初平 190 ━ 193) He came to power in 189 and was deposed and then poisoned by Dong Zhuo in 190. According to traditional historians, prior to him, Emperor Ling had other sons, but they all died young. Therefore, based on the superstitutions of the time, Emperor Ling believed that his sons needed to be raised outside the palace by foster parents. Prince Bian was therefore entrusted to the magician Shi Zimiao (史子眇) He was the oldest son compared with Xie of Consort Wang but Emperor Ling refused to make him crown prince because of his solemn behavior. Jian (eunuch) wanted Xie to be emperor so he tried to kill He Jin but was cought. LATER He Jin together with Yuan Shao and Yuan Shu plotted and killed Jian. Guo Sheng (郭胜) a friend of the Hes persuaded eunuchs Zhao Zhong and Song Dian (宋典) loyal to Jian to turn against him. Grand Empress Dowager Dong(Emperor Ling’s mother) who confronted with Empress He threatened to have her nephew Dong Chong decapitate her brother high official He Jin who exiled her to her hometown and then died which caused the people to despise the Hes. Yuan Shao and He Jin LATER planned to have Dong Zhuo (disobeys orders and is harsh)leader of the powerful Liang forced to attack the eunuchs. Cao Cao and Yuan Shaos forces, intimidated by the Liang forces fled the capitalater He Jin was found out and killed. The eunuchs kidnapped Bian and Xie and fled north while Empress He ran away. They killed themselves by jumping into the Yellow River. Dong Zhuo impressed with Xie who answered his questions, wanted Bian disposed. He poisoned him when Yuan Shao rebelled against him. 14) Xian4(present/offer) Di 献帝 Liu Xie2(joint/common) 刘协 189 ━ 220 (Xingping Era 兴平 194 ━ 195, Jian'an Era 建安 196 ━ 220, Yankang Era 延康 220) Dong Zhuo was assassinated in 192. Xian was a puppet. He came under control of CaoCao in 196 until CaoCao’s defeat by Sun Quan in the Battle of the Red Cliffs. Xian died at age 53, 14 years after fall of Han Dynasty. Xian was the 15th generation of Liu Bang. Dong Zhuo murdered Empress Dowager He. Dong Zhuo fearful of Yuan Shao’s collective force moved the capital west to Chang’an and burned Luoyang. Officials led by Wang Yun and Lu Bu (Dong Zhuo’s adopted son) assassinated him, but Dong’s subordinates revolted and killed Wang leaving no hope for the return of the Han Dynasty. Dong's F. subordinates, led by Li Jue and Guo Si, held Emperor Xian and the imperial officials. However, Li and Guo did not have serious ambitions, and their incompetence in governance furthered the breakdown of the empire into warlord realms. They allowed Emperor Xian to return to Luoyang which was very poor and some starved. CaoCao took control over Emperor Xian and moved the capital to Xu (in modern Xuchang, Henan), He shared power with Xian’s generals Dong Cheng and Yang Feng, convincing them of his loyalty, he entered Luoyang and technically shared power with Dong and Yang, but was in fact in command. Xian entered into a conspiracy with Liu Bei, Zhong Ji (种辑), and Wang Fu (王服) to assassinate Cao. Late in 199, Liu started a rebellion and waited for Dong to act in the capital, but in 200, Dong's conspiracy was discovered, and he, along with Zhong and Wang, were killed. Liu was LATER defeated by Cao and forced to flee to Yuan's camp. Dong's daughter, an imperial consort, was pregnant, and Emperor Xian personally tried to intercede for her, but Cao had her executed anyway. This would precipitate the next major incident. Emperor Xian's wife, Empress Fu Shou, angry and fearful about how Consort Dong died, wrote her father Fu Wan (伏完) a letter accusing Cao of cruelty, and implicitly asking Fu to start a new conspiracy against Cao. Fu Wan was fearful of Cao and never acted on the letter, in 214, her letter was discovered. Cao was extremely angry and forced Emperor Xian to have Empress Fu deposed. Emperor Xian was hesitant, and Cao sent his forces into the palace to force the issue. Empress Fu hid inside the walls, but was finally discovered and dragged out. As she was led away, she cried out to Emperor Xian for him to save her life, but his only response was that he could not even know what would happen to him. She was killed, along with her two sons and family. Emperor Xian was not, but his status as a puppet was by now fully exposed. Cao soon forced Emperor Xian to create his daughter Cao Jie, then an imperial consort, empress. After CaoCao died in 220, Cao Pi forced Xian to abdicate his throne to him. Xian died buried in Han tradition in 234.