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Frequently Asked Questions (faq) on Real Time Gross Settlement (rtgs) System Q. 1 What is rtgs system?


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Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) on

Real Time Gross Settlement (RTGS) System

Q.1 What is RTGS System?

Ans The acronym “RTGS” stands for Real Time Gross Settlement. RTGS system is a funds transfer mechanism where transfer of money takes place from one bank to another on a “real time” and on “gross” basis. This is the fastest possible money transfer system through the banking channel. Settlement in “real time” means payment transaction is not subjected to any waiting period. The transactions are settled as soon as they are processed. “Gross settlement” means the transaction is settled on one to one basis without bunching with any other transaction. Considering that money transfer takes place in the books of the Reserve Bank of India, the payment is taken as final and irrevocable.



Q.2 How RTGS is different from Electronic Fund Transfer System (EFT) or National Electronics Funds Transfer System (NEFT)?

Ans EFT and NEFT are electronic fund transfer modes that operate on a deferred net settlement (DNS) basis which settles transactions in batches. In DNS, the settlement takes place at a particular point of time. All transactions are held up till that time. For example, NEFT settlement takes place 6 times a day during the week days (9.30 am, 10.30 am, 12.00 noon. 1.00 pm, 3.00 pm and 4.00 pm) and 3 times during Saturdays (9.30 am, 10.30 am and 12.00 noon). Any transaction initiated after a designated settlement time would have to wait till the next designated settlement time. Contrary to this, in RTGS, transactions are processed continuously throughout the RTGS business hours.


Q .3 Is there any minimum / maximum amount stipulation for RTGS transactions?
Ans. The RTGS system is primarily for large value transactions. The minimum amount to be remitted through RTGS is Rs.1 lakh. There is no upper ceiling for RTGS transactions. No minimum or maximum stipulation has been fixed for EFT and NEFT transactions.
Q4. What is the time taken for effecting funds transfer from one account to another under RTGS?

Ans. Under normal circumstances the beneficiary branches are expected to receive the funds in real time as soon as funds are transferred by the remitting bank. The beneficiary bank has to credit the beneficiary's account within two hours of receiving the funds transfer message.



Q.5 Would the remitting customer receive an acknowledgement of money credited to the beneficiary's account?

Ans The remitting bank receives a message from the Reserve Bank that money has been credited to the receiving bank. Based on this the remitting bank can advise the remitting customer that money has been delivered to the receiving bank.


Q.6 Would the remitting customer get back the money if it is not credited to the beneficiary's account? When?

Ans Yes. It is expected that the receiving bank will credit the account of the beneficiary instantly. If the money cannot be credited for any reason, the receiving bank would have to return the money to the remitting bank within 2 hours. Once the money is received back by the remitting bank, the original debit entry in the customer's account is reversed.


Q.7 Till what time RTGS service window is available?

Ans The RTGS service window for customer's transactions is available from 9.00 hours to 15.00 hours on week days and from 9.00 hours to 12.00 noon on Saturdays i.e. to accept the customer transactions for settlement at the RBI during 9.00 hours to 15.00 hours on week days and between 9.00 hours and 12.00 noon on Saturday. However, the timings between these hours would vary depending on the customer timings the branches have. For inter-bank transactions, the service window is available from 9.00 hours to 17.00 hours on week days and from 9.00 hours to 14.00 hours on Saturdays.


Q.8 What about Processing Charges/Service Charges for RTGS transactions?

Ans While RBI has waived its processing charges for all electronic payment products till March 31, 2008, levy of service charges by banks is left to the discretion of the respective banks. The bank-wise details of charges levied are available on the RBI website – www.rbi.org.in.


Q.9 What is the essential information that the remitting customer would have to furnish to a bank for the remittance to be effected?

Ans The remitting customer has to furnish the following information to a bank for effecting a RTGS remittance:



  1. Amount to be remitted

  2. His account number which is to be debited

  3. Name of the beneficiary bank

  4. Name of the beneficiary customer

  5. Account number of the beneficiary customer

  6. Sender to receiver information, if any

  7. The IFSC code of the receiving branch


Q.10 How would one know the IFSC code of the receiving branch?

Ans. The beneficiary customer can obtain the IFSC code from his branch. The IFSC code is also available in the cheque leaf. This code number and bank branch details can be communicated by the beneficiary to the remitting customer.


Q.11 Do all bank branches in India provide RTGS service?

Ans No, all the bank branches in India are not RTGS enabled. As on January 31, 2007 more than 26,000 bank branches are RTGS enabled. The list of such branches is available on RBI website www.rbi.org.in/Scripts/Bs_viewRTGS.aspx


Q.12 Is there any way that a remitting customer can track the remittance transaction?

Ans It would depend on the arrangement between the remitting customer and the remitting bank. Some banks with internet banking facility provide this service. Once the funds are credited to the account of the beneficiary bank, the remitting customer gets a confirmation from his bank either by an e-mail or by a short message on the mobile.


Q.13. Whom do I can contact, in case of non-credit or delay in credit to the beneficiary account?

Ans Contact your bank / branch. If the issue is not resolved satisfactorily, the Customer Service Department of RBI may be contacted on cgmcsd@rbi.org.in or write to -


The Chief General Manager,

Reserve Bank of India,

Customer Service Department,

1st Floor, Amar Building, Fort,

Mumbai-400001
Q.14 How much volume and value of transactions are routed through RTGS on a typical day?

Ans On a typical day, RTGS handles about 14000 transactions a day for an approximate value of Rs.1,50,000 crore.


Q.15 How can a remitting customer know whether the bank branch of the beneficiary accepts remittance through RTGS?

Ans For a funds transfer to go through RTGS, both the sending bank branch and the receiving bank branch would have to be RTGS enabled. The lists are readily available at all RTGS enabled branches. Besides, the information is available at RBI website (www.rbi.org.in/Scripts/Bs_viewRTGS.aspx ). Considering that more than 26,000 branches at more than 3,000 cities/ towns and taluka places are covered under the RTGS system, getting this information would not be difficult.



Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) on

National Electronic Funds Transfer (NEFT) System
Q.1. What is NEFT System?

Ans National Electronic Funds Transfer (NEFT) system is a nation wide funds transfer system to facilitate transfer of funds from any bank branch to any other bank branch.


Q. 2. Are all bank branches in the system part of the funds transfer network?

Ans No. As on January 31, 2007, 18500 branches of 53 banks are participating. Steps are being taken to widen the coverage both in terms of banks and branches.


Q.3. Whether the system is centre specific or has any geographical restriction?

Ans No, there is no restriction in the number of centres or of any geographical area. The system uses the concept of centralised accounting system and the bank's account that are sending or receiving the funds transfer instructions, gets operated at one centre, viz, Mumbai only. The individual branches participating in NEFT could be located anywhere across the country, as detailed in the list provided on RBI website.


Q.4. What is the funds availability schedule for the beneficiary?

Ans The beneficiary gets the credit on the same Day or the next Day depending on the time of settlement.


Q.5. How does the NEFT system operate?

Ans :Step-1: The remitter fills in the NEFT Application form giving the particulars of the beneficiary (bank-branch, beneficiary's name, account type and account number) and authorises the branch to remit the specified amount to the beneficiary by raising a debit to the remitter's account. (This can also be done by using net banking services offered by some of the banks)

Step-2: The remitting branch prepares a Structured Financial Messaging Solution (SFMS) message and sends it to its Service Centre for NEFT.

Step-3: The Service Centre forwards the same to the local RBI (National Clearing Cell, Mumbai) to be included for the next available settlement. Presently, NEFT is settled in six batches at 0930, 1030, 1200, 1300, 1500 and 1600 hours on weekdays and 0930, 1030 and 1200 hours on Saturdays

Step-4: The RBI at the clearing centre sorts the transactions bank-wise and prepares accounting entries of net debit or credit for passing on to the banks participating in the system. Thereafter, bank-wise remittance messages are transmitted to banks.

Step-5: The receiving banks process the remittance messages received from RBI and affect the credit to the beneficiaries' accounts.


Q.6. How is this NEFT System an improvement over the existing RBI-EFT System?

Ans The RBI-EFT system is confined to the 15 centres where RBI is providing the facility, whereas there is no such restriction in NEFT as it is based on the centralised concept. The detailed list of branches of various banks participating in NEFT system is available on our website. The system also uses the state-of-the-art technology for the communication, security etc, and thereby offers better customer service.


Q.7. How is it different from RTGS and EFT?

Ans: NEFT is an electronic payment system to transfer funds from any part of country to any other part of the country and works on net settlement basis, unlike RTGS that works on gross settlement basis. While EFT is restricted to the fifteen centers (only where RBI offices are located), NEFT is a nation-wide electronic fund transfer system.


Q.8. Any limit on the amount of individual transaction?

Ans There is no value limit for individual transactions.


Q.9. What about Processing Charges/Service Charges

Ans While RBI has waived the processing charges till March 31, 2008, levy of service charges by banks is left to the discretion of the respective banks. The bank-wise details of charges levied are available on the RBI website.


Q.10. How will I know which are the branches participating in the NEFT?

Ans RBI publishes the list of bank branches participating in the NEFT on its website i.e. www.rbi.org.in .


Q.11. What is IFS Code (IFSC)? How it is different from MICR code?

Ans Indian Financial System Code (IFSC) is an alpha numeric code designed to uniquely identify the bank-branches in India. This is 11 digit code with first 4 characters representing the banks code, the next character reserved as control character (Presently 0 appears in the fifth position) and remaining 6 characters to identify the branch. The MICR code has 9 digits to identify the bank-branch.


Q.12. How will I know, what is the IFS Code of my bank-branch?

Ans RBI had since advised all the banks to print IFSC on cheques leaves issued to their customers. You may also contact your bank-branch and get the IFS Code of that branch.


Q.13. Whom I can contact, in case of non-credit or delay in credit to the beneficiary account?

Ans Contact your bank / branch. If the issue is not resolved satisfactorily, the Customer Service Department of RBI may be contacted on cgmcsd@rbi.org.in or write to -

The Chief General Manager,

Reserve Bank of India,

Customer Service Department,

1st Floor, Amar Building, Fort,

Mumbai-400001
Q.14. Is it necessary to have a bank account to originate the NEFT transaction?

Ans Yes, NEFT is an account to account funds transfer system.


Q.15. Is it necessary that the beneficiary should have an account at the destination bank-branch?

Ans Yes, NEFT is an account to account funds transfer system.


Q.16. Can I receive foreign remittances through NEFT?

Ans This system can be used only for remitting Indian Rupee among the participating banks within the country.


Q.17. Can I send remittances abroad using the NEFT?

Ans No
Q.18. Can I originate a transaction to receive funds from another account?

Ans No
Q.19. Can I send/receive funds from/to NRI accounts?

Ans: Yes, subject to applicability of provisions of FEMA


Q.20. Would the remitting customer receive an acknowledgement of money having been credited to the beneficiary's account?

Ans: Acknowledgement is generated for the customer at his branch informing him that his remittance is received by the beneficiary. However the mode of communication would depend on the facility provided by bank / branch.


Q.21. Would the remitting customer get back the money if it is not credited to the beneficiary’s account?

Ans: Yes, the remitting customer gets back the money if it is not credited to the beneficiary account.


Q.22. Till what time NEFT service window is available?

Ans: There are six settlements at 0930, 1030, 1200, 1300, 1500 and 1600 hours on weekdays and 0930, 1030 and 1200 hours on Saturdays.


Q.23. What is the essential information that the remitting customer would have to furnish for the remittance to be effected?

Ans: The essential information that the remitting customer has to furnish is:



  • Beneficiary details such as beneficiary name and account number

  • Name and IFSC of the beneficiary bank branch.


Q.24. Is there any way a remitting customer can track the remittance transaction?

Ans: The remitting customer can track the remitting transaction through the remitting branch only, as the remitting branch is informed about the status of the remitted transactions.



Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) on

Electronic Clearing Service-(ECS)
Q.1. What is Electronic Clearing Service (ECS)?

Ans It is a mode of electronic funds transfer from one bank account to another bank account using the services of a Clearing House. This is normally for bulk transfers from one account to many accounts or vice-versa. This can be used both for making payments like distribution of dividend, interest, salary, pension, etc. by institutions or for collection of amounts for purposes such as payments to utility companies like telephone, electricity, or charges such as house tax, water tax, etc or for loan installments of financial institutions/banks or regular investments of persons.


Q.2. What are the types of ECS? In what way they are different from each other?

Ans There are two types of ECS called ECS (Credit) and ECS (Debit).

ECS (Credit) is used for affording credit to a large number of beneficiaries by raising a single debit to an account, such as dividend, interest or salary payment.
ECS (Debit) is used for raising debits to a number of accounts of consumers/ account holders for crediting a particular institution.
ECS Credit System
Q.3. Who can initiate an ECS (Credit) transaction?

Ans ECS payments can be initiated by any institution (called ECS user) who have to make bulk or repetitive payments to a number of beneficiaries. They can initiate the transactions after registering themselves with an approved clearing house. ECS users have also to obtain the consent as also the account particulars of the beneficiary for participating the ECS clearings.

The ECS user's bank is called as the sponsor bank under the scheme and the ECS beneficiary account holder is called the destination account holder. The destination account holder's bank or the beneficiary's bank is called the destination bank.
The beneficiaries of the regular or repetitive payments can also request the paying institution to make use of the ECS (Credit) mechanism for effecting payment.
Q.4. How does the ECS Credit system work?

Ans The ECS users intending to effect payments have to submit the data in a specified format to one of the approved clearing houses. The list of the approved clearing houses or the list of centres where the ECS facility has been provided is available at www.rbi.org.in.


The clearing house would debit the account of the ECS user through the account of the sponsor bank on the appointed day and credit the accounts of the recipient banks, for affording onward credit to the accounts of the ultimate beneficiaries.
Q.5. At which of the centres ECS facility is available?

Ans At present ECS facility is available at more than 60 centres and the full list is available at the web-site of RBI.

The beneficiaries need to maintain an account with one of the banks at these centres in order to avail of the benefit of ECS.
Q.6. How does a beneficiary participate in ECS (Credit ) scheme?

Ans The beneficiary has to furnish a mandate giving his consent to avail of the ECS facility. He should also communicate to the ECS user the details of his bank branch and account particulars. Such authorisation form is called a mandate.


Q.7. Will there be any need for the beneficiary to alter this mandate?

Ans Yes. In case the information / account particulars undergo change, then he has to notify the ECS user to carryout changes in order to ensure continued benefits from the ECS user. In case the account particulars at the destination branch do not match, the destination branches would return the credit through their service branch to the clearing house.


Q.8. Who will communicate the beneficiaries' about the credit?

Ans It is the responsibility of the ECS user to communicate to the beneficiary the details of credit that is being afforded to his account, indicating the proposed date of credit, amount and the relative particulars of the payment, so that the beneficiary can match the same with the details furnished by the bank in the account statement / passbook.


Q.9. What are the advantages to the ultimate beneficiary?

Ans


  • The ultimate beneficiary need not make frequent visits to his bank for depositing the physical paper instruments.

  • He need not apprehend loss of instrument and fraudulent encashment.

  • The delay in realisation of proceeds after receipt of paper instrument is obviated.


Q.10. How does the scheme benefit the ECS user-like corporate bodies/ institutions?

Ans


  • The ECS user saves on administrative machinery for printing, dispatch and reconciliation.

  • Avoids chances of loss of instruments in postal transit.

  • Avoids chances of frauds due to fraudulent access to the paper instruments and encashment.

  • Ability to make payment and ensure that the beneficiaries' account gets credited on a designated date.


Q.11. What are the advantages to the banks?

Ans


  • Banks handling ECS get freed of paper handling.

  • Paper handling also creates lot of pressure on banks as they have to encode the instruments, present them in clearing, monitor their return and follow up with the concerned bank and customers.

  • In ECS banks simply get the payment particulars relating to their customers. All they need to do is to match the account particulars like name, a/c number and credit the proceeds.

  • Wherever the details do not match, they have to return it back, as per the procedure.


Q.12. How can the customer track-down these payments?

Ans Banks have been advised to ensure that the pass-books / statements given to the customers reflect the particulars of the transaction provided by the ECS users. Customers can match these entries with the advice received by them from the payment institution.


Q.13. Is there any limit on the amount of Individual transactions?

Ans No value limit on the amount of individual transactions has been prescribed under the scheme.


Q.14. What are the Processing / Service charges? Is it a costly service?

Ans RBI has since deregulated Service Charges to be levied by sponsor banks. As regards Processing Charges levied by RBI and other banks managing the clearing houses, the same has been waived till March 31, 2008.


Q.15. Is it necessary for the corporates / institutions to collect mandate from the investors?

Ans Yes. A model mandate form has been prescribed for the purpose. Payment processing by banks becomes easier once the database is prepared. SEBI has also issued guidelines to investors to furnish their account numbers in their share applications for printing the same on the interest / dividend warrants, collecting the account particulars and mandates may not pose much problem.



ECS Debit system

Q.16. What is ECS (Debit) scheme?

Ans It is a scheme under which an account holder with a bank can authorise an ECS user to recover an amount at a prescribed frequency by raising a debit in his account. The ECS user has to collect an authorisation which is called ECS mandate for raising such debits. These mandates have to be endorsed by the bank branch maintaining the account.


Q.17. How does the scheme work?

Ans Any ECS user desirous of participating in the scheme has to register with an approved clearing house. The list of approved clearing houses is available at RBI web-site www.rbi.org.in.

He should also collect the mandate forms from the participating destination account holders, with bank's acknowledgement. A copy of the mandate should be available with the drawee bank.

The ECS user has to submit the data in specified form through the sponsor bank to the clearing house. The clearing house would pass on the debit to the destination account holder through the clearing system and credit the sponsor bank's account for onward crediting the ECS user. All the unprocessed debits have to be returned to the sponsor bank within the time frame specified. Banks will treat the electronic instructions received through the clearing system on par with the physical cheques.


Q.18. What are the advantages to the ultimate beneficiary?

Ans


  • Trouble free- eliminates the need to go to the collection centres / banks by the customers and no need to stand in long ‘Q’s for payment

  • Peace of mind- Customers also need not track down payments by last dates.

  • The debits would be monitored by the ECS users.


Q.19. How does the scheme benefit the ECS user-like corporate bodies/ institutions?

Ans


  • The ECS user saves on administrative machinery for collecting the cheques, monitoring their realisation and reconciliation

  • Better cash management.

  • Avoids chances of frauds due to fraudulent access to the paper instruments and encashment.

  • Realise the payments on a single date instead of fractured receipt of payments.


Q.20. What are the advantages to the banks?

Ans


  • Banks handling ECS get freed of paper handling.

  • Paper handling also creates lot of pressure on banks as they have to encode the instruments, present them in clearing, monitor their return and follow up with the concerned bank and customers.

  • In ECS banks simply get the mandate particulars relating to their customers. All they need to do is to match the account particulars like name, a/c number and debit the accounts.

  • Wherever the details do not match, they have to return it back, as per the procedure.


Q.21. Can the mandate given once be withdrawn or stopped?

Ans Yes. The mandate given is on par with a cheque issued by a customer. The only stipulation under the scheme is that the customer has to give prior notice to the ECS user, to ensure that they do not include the debits.


Q.22. Can the customer stipulate any maximum debit, purpose or validity period for the mandate?

Ans Yes. It is left to the choice of the individual customer and the ECS user to finalise these aspects. The mandate can contain a maximum ceiling; it can also specify the purpose as also a validity period.


Q.23. What is the current coverage of the scheme?

Ans At present the scheme is in operation at 15 RBI centres (i.e. centres where RBI manages the Clearing House operations) and at other centres where Public Sector Banks manage the clearing operations. The list of centres is available at the RBI web-site under the procedural guidelines.


Q.24. Processing charges on individual transactions

Ans RBI has deregulated the service charges that could be levied by sponsor banks. RBI has waived the processing charges levied by RBI and other banks managing the clearing houses till March 2008.


Q.25. Which are the institutions eligible to participate in the ECS Debit scheme?

Ans Utility service providers such as telephone companies, electricity supplying companies, electricity boards, credit card collections, collection of loan installments by banks and financial institutions, and investment schemes of Mutual funds, etc.




Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) on

Electronic Funds Transfer (EFT) System

Q.1. What is RBI-EFT System?

Ans RBI EFT is a Scheme introduced by Reserve Bank of India (RBI) to help banks offering their customers money transfer service from account to account of any bank branch to any other bank branch in places where EFT services are offered.


Q.2. At how many centres and bank branches is the EFT facility available?

Ans The EFT system presently covers all the branches of the 27 public sector banks and 55 scheduled commercial banks at the 15 centres (viz., Ahmedabad, Bangalore, Bhubneshwar, Kolkata, Chandigarh, Chennai, Guwahati, Hyderabad, Jaipur, Kanpur, Mumbai, Nagpur, New Delhi, Patna and Thiruvananthpuram). Funds transfer is possible from any branch of these banks at these centres to other branch of any bank at these centres both inter-city and intra-city.


Q.3. What is the funds availability schedule for the beneficiary?

Ans The remitting bank transmits the funds transfer message to RBI so as to reach NCC, before the cut off time for the settlement, the receiving bank’s account is credited by RBI at the destination centre and beneficiary gets credit on the same day.


Q.4. How does the RBI EFT system operate?

Ans Step-1: The remitter fills in the EFT Application form giving the particulars of the beneficiary (city, bank, branch, beneficiary’s name, account type and account number) and authorises the branch to remit a specified amount to the beneficiary by raising a debit to the remitter’s account.



Step-2: The remitting branch prepares a schedule and sends the duplicate of the EFT application form to its Service branch for EFT data preparation. If the branch is equipped with a computer system, data preparation can be done at the branch level in the specified format.

Step-3: The Service branch prepares the EFT data file by using a software package supplied by RBI and transmits the same to the local RBI (National Clearing Cell) to be included for the settlement.

Step-4: The RBI at the remitting centre consolidates the files received from all banks, sorts the transactions city-wise and prepares vouchers for debiting the remitting banks on Day-1 itself. City-wise files are transmitted to the RBI offices at the respective destination centres.

Step-5: RBI at the destination centre receives the files from the originating centres, consolidates them and sorts them bank-wise. Thereafter, bank-wise remittance data files are transmitted to banks on Day 1 itself. Bank-wise vouchers are prepared for crediting the receiving banks’ accounts the same day or next day.

Step-6: On Day 1/2 morning the receiving banks at the destination centres process the remittance files transmitted by RBI and forward credit reports to the destination branches for crediting the beneficiaries’ accounts.
Q.5. How is this RBI EFT System an improvement over the existing facilities?

Ans The primary modes of funds transfer at present are demand draft, mail transfer and telegraphic transfer. The demand draft facility is paper based. The remitter, after purchasing demand draft from a bank branch, dispatches the same by post / courier to the beneficiary. The beneficiary, in turn, lodges the draft to his / her bank for collection and clearing. The time taken for completing the process is about 10 days. In the case of telegraphic transfer, fund reaches the beneficiary either on the same day or the next; but both the remitter and the beneficiary would have to be account holders of the same bank. If they are customers of different banks, a good deal of paper processing is required. On the other hand, RBI EFT system is an inter-bank oriented system. RBI acts as an intermediary between the remitting bank and the receiving bank and effects inter-bank funds transfer. The customers of banks can request their respective branches to remit funds to the designated customers irrespective of bank affiliation of the beneficiary.


Q.6. Any limit on the amount of individual transaction?

Ans There is no value limit for individual transactions.


Q.7. What is the procedure for acknowledgment? How would the sending branch know that the remitted amount has been credited to the beneficiary?

Ans The receiving branch acknowledges every transaction it receives after crediting the beneficiary’s account. The acknowledgment particulars reach the remitting branch as an inward message on Day 3 of the EFT processing cycle. The remitting branch will, therefore, have precise information as to when the beneficiary’s account was credited.


Q.8. Is it necessary for all branches to install computer system?

Ans No. It is not necessary for all branches to have computer systems. Branches can send the remittance details to their service branch in paper format (the copies of the EFT Application Forms submitted by the remitting customers accompanied by a Remittance Scroll). The Service branch will make data entry and transmit the funds transfer information electronically to local NCC. But, if a branch has computer facility, it can transmit funds transfer information electronically to its service branch either on a floppy or through a network. This would minimise the data entry work at the service branch.


Q.9. What additional organisational structure banks would be required to create?

Ans Each participating bank has to identify a branch at the respective centre to act as the link point for transmitting all outward messages and receiving all inward messages. The Service Branches / Main Branches of banks who have been coordinating the cheque-clearing work are in the best position to discharge this role. So no additional organisational infrastructure is required to be created.


Q.10. What about Processing charges/Service charges?

Ans While RBI has waived its processing charges till March 31, 2008, levy of service charges by banks is left to the discretion of respective banks.



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