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FJournal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine Volume 42, Issue 2 Abstracts


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FJournal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine

Volume 42, Issue 2

Abstracts
譯者:曾昱昌 國立嘉義大學獸醫學系

李依恬 國立嘉義大學獸醫學系

劉上楓 國立嘉義大學獸醫學系

林育禎 國立嘉義大學獸醫學系

林佳萱 國立中興大學獸醫學系

曾冠捷 國立中興大學獸醫學系

施正心 國立中興大學獸醫學系

洪瑞漪 國立中興大學獸醫學系

蘇星彥 國立台灣大學獸醫學系

李藹芸 國立台灣大學獸醫學系

鄭以晴 國立台灣大學獸醫學系

郎浩媛 國立屏東科技大學獸醫學系

審稿:余珍芳 臺北市立動物園獸醫主任

Yu, Jane-Fang Jane, Chief of Vet, Taipei zoo

金仕謙 臺北市立動物園園長、獸醫師

Chin, Shih-Chien Jason, Director & Vet, Taipei zoo

Pages 197-204

Hospice in a Zoologic Medicine Setting

David A. Jessup, D.V.M., M.P.V.M., Dipl. A.C.Z.M., and Cheryl A. Scott, R.N., N.P., D.V.M., M.P.V.M.

Abstract:Forty years ago, Dr. Elizabeth Kubler-Ross in her landmark book On Death and Dying observed “maybe at the end of our days, when we have worked and given, enjoyed ourselves and suffered, we are going back to the stage that we started out with and the circle of life is closed.” Just as human life expectancy has steadily increased over the last 4 or 5 decades, animal life expectancy has increased, including that of zoologic species. With this has come a need for humans to openly and frankly deal with end-of-life issues for themselves and for their animals, including those in zoos. By necessity, zoos have been dealing with problems such as aggressive pain management and triage, and efforts to incorporate end-of-life care into zoologic medicine. But these efforts have yet to include formal acknowledgment that they are a basic form of hospice. Hospice for humans, and now for companion animals, includes much more than pain relief and geriatric care. This article reviews the concepts and basic practices of hospice and the closely related field of palliative care, their relatively recent application to companion animal care, potential applications to zoologic medicine, and the ways this could provide opportunities for personal growth of zoo visitors and staff, including veterinary staff.

Key words: hospice, palliative care, pain, geriatric, human animal bond, end of life, euthanasia




臨終關懷在動物園醫學的思考

翻譯:李依恬


David A. Jessup, D.V.M., M.P.V.M., Dipl. A.C.Z.M., and Cheryl A. Scott, R.N., N.P., D.V.M., M.P.V.M.

摘要:四十年前,Dr. Elizabeth Kubler-Ross在她里程碑的著作--On Death and Dying中評述到:「也許在我們的生命結束時,我們曾努力與付出的、享受我們自己和痛苦的遭遇,我們將回到生命開始時的階段且關閉了生命的循環。」就像人類的平均壽命,在過去的四、五十年來穩定的上升,動物的平均壽命也增加了,包括動物園內的物種。因為如此,面臨一個需求,人類需要為自己與為他們的動物,公開和坦率地面對生命盡頭的議題,也包括那些在動物園裡的動物。想當然地,動物園已面對此一問題,已將持續性的疼痛進行管理和分類,努力把生命盡頭的照護,與動物園醫學連結。但是這些努力還沒有正式被認定為基本的臨終關懷。臨終關懷在人類及現今的伴侶動物,遠遠不僅止於緩解疼痛和老年護理。本文回顧了臨終關懷的理論依據與基本的臨場應用,與相關的安寧療護間密切的關聯性,近來應用於伴侶動物照護的應用,及在動物園醫學應用的潛力,以及可能為動物園遊客、員工,包括獸醫人員個人的成長提供了機會。

關鍵字:臨終關懷、安寧療護、疼痛、老年的、人類與動物的連繫、生命盡頭、安樂死

Pages 205-213



Hematology and Clinical Chemistry Values of Free-Ranging Basilisk Lizards (Basiliscus plumifrons) in Costa Rica

Rebecca K. Dallwig, D.V.M., Joanne Paul-Murphy, D.V.M., Dipl. A.C.Z.M., Chester Thomas, D.V.M., Scott Medlin, D.V.M., Christopher Vaughan, Ph.D., Linda Sullivan, D.V.M., Kurt K. Sladky, M.S., D.V.M., Dipl. A.C.Z.M., Oscar Ramirez, B.S., M.S., and Geovanny Herrera

Abstract: Twenty-three lizards were captured for this study, both males and females (12 males, 10 females, 1 undetermined), with a large range in body weights (40–286 g) appeared to be healthy based on activity level, physical examinations, and body condition scores. Heparinized blood samples from 20 free-ranging basilisk lizards (Basiliscus plumifrons) in Costa Rica were used for determining complete blood cell counts, plasma, and heparinized whole blood biochemical analysis. This information will serve as baseline reference data for future health assessment studies of free-ranging and captive basilisk lizards, as well as epidemiologic, conservation, and captive-breeding studies. A point-of-care analyzer was useful for this field study, and clinical chemistry values from heparinized whole blood samples were similar to values from plasma, which indicates that separation of plasma may not be necessary to process blood samples on site in remote areas. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of hematologic and plasma biochemical data from free-ranging B. plumifrons.

Key words: Basiliscus plumifrons, clinical biochemistry, hematology, lizard, plasma biochemistry, reference range




在哥斯達黎加野生的蛇怪蜥蜴之血液學和臨床化學數值

翻譯:李依恬


Rebecca K. Dallwig, D.V.M., Joanne Paul-Murphy, D.V.M., Dipl. A.C.Z.M., Chester Thomas, D.V.M., Scott Medlin, D.V.M., Christopher Vaughan, Ph.D., Linda Sullivan, D.V.M., Kurt K. Sladky, M.S., D.V.M., Dipl. A.C.Z.M., Oscar Ramirez, B.S., M.S., and Geovanny Herrera

摘要:本研究中捕捉二十三蜥蜴,包含雄性和雌性(雄性12隻、雌性10隻、1隻未確定),體重分布範圍大(40-286克),由活動狀態、體檢以及體況評分來判定健康狀況。在哥斯達黎加,採集20隻野生的蛇怪蜥蜴,取用肝素化血液樣本,測定全血球計數、血漿及肝素抗凝全血生化分析。此資訊將提供未來對野生和圈養蛇怪蜥蜴健康評估研究,作為參考基準數據;以及流行病學、保育、圈養繁殖研究。藉由重點照護分析(point-of-care analyzer)對於此野外研究是有用的,且來自肝素化全血樣本的臨床化學數值與來自血漿樣本的數值是相似的。這表示在偏遠地區的現場,血液樣本可能沒有必要處理分離血漿。據作者所知,這是野生的B. plumifrons血液學和血液生化數據的第一次報告。

關鍵字:蛇怪蜥蜴學名、臨床血液生化學、血液學、蜥蜴、血漿生化學、參考範圍

Pages 214-221, 2011 



Chemical and Surgical Interventions to Alleviate Intraspecific Aggression in Male Collared Lemurs (Eulemur collaris)

Gina M. Ferrie, M.S., Kris K. Becker, B.S., Catharine J. Wheaton, Ph.D., Deidre Fontenot, D.V.M., and Tammie Bettinger, Ph.D.

Abstract: To reduce male–male aggression in collared lemurs (Eulemur collaris) at Disney's Animal Kingdom®, a clinical trial of leuprolide acetate (Depo-Lupron®) injections through one breeding season (24 wk), followed by surgical castration after the breeding season was implemented. Daily behavioral observations to record occurrences of aggression were conducted before and during the injection period, as well as after castration. Fecal sample collection began 2 wk before the first injection and continued throughout the clinical trial to determine testosterone metabolite concentration. Samples were collected 3 times per week. Fecal collection and behavioral observation continued for 5 mo after castration. Fecal samples from 3 intact males from other institutions were obtained to compare testosterone values. While the lemurs were treated with Depo-Lupron, testosterone concentrations spiked immediately after injection, and then returned to pretreatment, nonbreeding-season levels after varying lengths of time. Analysis of the behavioral data indicated that aggression was not significantly reduced with Depo-Lupron treatment. However, after castration, contact aggression and wounding decreased to zero. Although the sample is small, this study presents the first documented data on the effects that chemical treatment with Depo-Lupron and surgical castration have upon hormone levels and aggressive behavior in eulemurs. 

Key words: aggression, collared lemur, Depo-Lupron, Eulemur collaris, leuprolide acetate, surgical castration




使用化學和手術的方法來降低雄性紅額狐猴的種內侵略性

翻譯:


Gina M. Ferrie, M.S., Kris K. Becker, B.S., Catharine J. Wheaton, Ph.D., Deidre Fontenot, D.V.M., and Tammie Bettinger, Ph.D.

摘要:迪士尼動物王國為了降低雄性紅額狐猴間的侵略性,進行了一個臨床試驗,在繁殖季節注射醋酸亮丙瑞林(柳菩林Depo-Lupron®)(24個星期);且在繁殖季節結束後,進行去勢手術。每天觀察並分別記錄動物在注射前、注射中及去勢後的侵略行為。注射前的兩個星期,開始收集糞便樣品,並且持續至整個臨床實驗結束,用來檢測睪固酮代謝的濃度。每個星期收集3次樣本。動物去勢後,糞便收集和行為觀察持續5個月。另外取3隻正常的雄性狐猴的糞便樣本,用以比較睪固酮量。注射完柳菩林注射液的狐猴,睪固酮濃度快速攀升,然後經過不同的時間,回復至治療前、非繁殖季的濃度。經行為數據的分析,使用柳菩林注射液,侵略行為並沒有明顯的減少。然而,去勢後,接觸性的侵略及傷害降低至零。雖然樣本很少,但這項研究是第一份紀錄紅額狐猴,使用化學柳菩林注射液治療及去勢手術,對於荷爾蒙濃度及攻擊行為的影響。

關鍵字: 侵略性、紅額狐猴、柳菩林注射液、紅額狐猴學名、醋酸亮丙瑞林、去勢手術

Pages 222-227, 2011 



Pinniped Tuberculosis in Malayan Tapirs (Tapirus indicus) and its Transmission to Other Terrestrial Mammals

Kerstin Jurczynski, D.V.M., Konstantin P. Lyashchenko, Ph.D., David Gomis, D.V.M., Irmgard Moser, D.V.M., Rena Greenwald, M.D., and Pierre Moisson, D.V.M.

 Abstract: In the last 7 yr, three different species of terrestrial mammals were diagnosed with Mycobacterium pinnipedii either within one collection or through the introduction of an infected animal from another zoo. The affected species included the Malayan tapir (Tapirus indicus), Bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus bactrianus), and crested porcupine (Hystrix cristata). In the first zoo, all of these were living in exhibits adjacent to a group of South American sea lions (Otaria flavescens) and were cared for by the same keeper. One infected tapir was transferred to a different zoo and transmitted M. pinnipedii infection to three other Malayan tapirs. The tapirs were tested with various diagnostic methods, including comparative intradermal tuberculin test, PCR and culture of sputum samples, Rapid Test (RT), and multiantigen print immunoassay (MAPIA). The M. pinnipedii infection was confirmed at postmortem examination in all animals. RT and MAPIA showed the diagnostic potential for rapid antemortem detection of this important zoonotic disease. 

Key words: Mycobacterium pinnipedii, Malayan tapirs, MAPIA, tuberculosis, zoonosis




馬來貘、鰭腳類動物的結核病和其他陸生哺乳類的傳染

翻譯:


Kerstin Jurczynski, D.V.M., Konstantin P. Lyashchenko, Ph.D., David Gomis, D.V.M., Irmgard Moser, D.V.M., Rena Greenwald, M.D., and Pierre Moisson, D.V.M.

摘要:在過去的七年內,有三種不同種類的陸生哺乳類,診斷出鰭腳動物分支桿菌感染,不是在一個族群中,就是透過其他動物園內感染動物的傳染。受感染的物種包含馬來貘、雙峰駱駝及冠豪豬。在一開始,動物園內這些動物的展示場都緊鄰著南美海獅群,且都由相同的管理員照顧。一隻受感染的貘被運送至不同的動物園,因此把鰭腳動物分支桿菌也傳染過去,並且感染了其他三隻馬來貘。這些馬來貘用了各種診斷方式,包括比較皮內結核菌素測試、聚合酶鏈鎖反應和痰液細菌培養、快篩及多抗原複製免疫法。所有動物直到死後檢查時,才確認為鰭腳動物分支桿菌感染。快速檢測及多抗原複製免疫法,在這個重要的人畜共通傳染病,對動物生前的快速檢測有診斷的潛力。

關鍵字:鰭腳動物分支桿菌、馬來貘、多抗原複製免疫法、結核病、人畜共通傳染病

Pages 228-235



Assessment of the Quality of Multi-Institutional Data for Population-Based Epidemiological Studies: A Case Study of Atoxoplasmosis in Bali Mynahs (Leucopsar rothschildi)

Lisa B. Done, D.V.M., M.P.V.M., James T. Case, D.V.M., Ph.D., Jonna A. Mazet, D.V.M., M.P.V.M., Ph.D., and Michael Ziccardi, D.V.M., M.P.V.M., Ph.D.

Abstract: To evaluate the potential to conduct population-based epidemiologic studies using multi-institutional data, the quality of data extracted from the MedARKS® system was evaluated with regard to atoxoplasmosis in Bali mynahs (Leucopsar rothschildi). Data extracted for 338 Bali mynahs from 34 institutions were analyzed for completeness, correctness, and consistency and subjectively analyzed for accessibility. Data completeness was ascertained by analysis of missing records, tests, and blank fields. Two hundred and sixty four records had animal enclosure information missing, nine records were missing from the parasitology module, and 85 records did not include tests or results. Data correctness was assessed by evaluation of unclear and inaccurate results. From 2,432 parasitology records, 81 tests (3.3%) were not definitive because of uninterpretable entries. Data consistency was assessed by comparing the problem list to positive tests in the parasitology module and listing of buffy coat smears in the clinical pathology module. Overall, six different terms with 28 values were used to denote “positive for Atoxoplasma sp.,” and a substantial number of discrepancies were found between problem lists, parasitology modules, and test findings among these data records. In general, this study showed that the data contained in a computer patient record (CPR) system for zoos has great promise for population-level studies if specific areas are addressed, including 1) reduced reliance on free-text data entry, 2) universal use of a standardized vocabulary, 3) use of methods to identify and track individual animals accurately and easily, 4) integration of data checks and maintenance methods, and 5) concerted use of “centralized” animal medical record information.

Key words: Atoxoplasmosis, Bali mynah, computer patient record, Leucopsar rothschildi, data quality, MedARKS




以族群為基礎的流行病學研究多機構數據品質的評估:Atoxoplasmosis在巴里島白椋鳥的案例研究

翻譯:施正心


Lisa B. Done, D.V.M., M.P.V.M., James T. Case, D.V.M., Ph.D., Jonna A. Mazet, D.V.M., M.P.V.M., Ph.D., and Michael Ziccardi, D.V.M., M.P.V.M., Ph.D.

摘要:為了評估使用多機構數據,進行以族群為基礎的流行病學研究的潛力,而評估摘錄自MedARKS®系統,Atoxoplasmosis在巴里島白椋鳥的數據品質。數據來自34個機構的338隻巴里島白椋鳥,對這些數據的完整性、正確性和一致性,以主觀分析其影響性。數據的完整性是由分析遺失的記錄、檢測和空白領域來確定。264個記錄有動物圍欄舍資料的遺失,9個記錄的寄生蟲學模組遺失,85個記錄沒有檢測或結果。數據的正確性從估算不清楚和不精確的結果進行評估。2432個寄生蟲學的記錄中,81個測試(3.3%)因無法解釋的輸入內容而不具決定性。數據的一致性,藉由寄生蟲學模組中陽性測試的問題清單,和將臨床病理學模組中的血球橙黃層抹片列表來比較。總體而言,6個不同的專有名詞和28個數值被用來表示「Atoxoplasma sp.陽性」,而且在問題清單、寄生蟲學模組、這些數據記錄的測試結果之間,發現大量不一致之處。一般來說,此研究顯示,在動物園的電腦病歷紀錄(CPR)系統所包含的數據,如果能符合特定領域,對於族群等級的研究有很大的可行性。這些特定領域包含1)減少對原始文件數據的依賴,2)標準化詞彙的使用,3)精確、輕易地識別確認動物個體,4)整合數據檢查和維持方法,5)一致使用「集中式」的動物醫療記錄資訊。

關鍵字:Atoxoplasmosis、巴里島白椋鳥、電腦病歷紀錄、巴里島白椋鳥學名、數據品質、MedARKS

Pages 236-240



Evaluation of an 18-Micron Filter for Use in Reptile Blood Transfusions Using Blood from American Alligators (Alligator mississippiensis)

Javier G. Nevarez, D.V.M., Ph.D., Jennifer Cockburn, D.V.M., Michael T. Kearney, M.S., M.Ap. Sat., and Joerg Mayer, M.S., D.M.V., Dipl. A.B.V.P. (Exotic Companion Mammal)

Abstract: Blood transfusions are a common therapeutic procedure in small animal medicine and have been investigated in some exotic species but little information is available about their safety and efficacy in reptiles. In human pediatrics and small animal practice, the Hemo-Nate®18-μ filter is used to prevent embolic clots and particulate waste from entering the recipient during a transfusion. The goal of this study was to determine the hemolytic effect of an 18-μ Hemo-Nate filter for whole blood cell transfusions in reptiles using the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) as a reptilian model. Results revealed no significant difference in free plasma hemoglobin between the unfiltered and filtered samples (P = 0.21). There was no difference in the prefiltration and postfiltration packed cell volume (PCV) (P = 0.41). Results suggest that an 18-μ Hemo-Nate filter does not cause hemolysis or decrease the PCV of small quantities of alligator blood.

Key words: American alligator, Alligator mississippiensis, blood filter, blood transfusion, hemolysis, reptile




在爬蟲類18微米過濾器用美國短吻鱷輸血時的血液評估

翻譯:施正心


Javier G. Nevarez, D.V.M., Ph.D., Jennifer Cockburn, D.V.M., Michael T. Kearney, M.S., M.Ap. Sat., and Joerg Mayer, M.S., D.M.V., Dipl. A.B.V.P. (Exotic Companion Mammal)

摘要:輸血是小動物常見的醫療程序,並已被研究使用在一些野生動物,但使用在爬蟲類的安全性和功效的資訊非常少。Hemo-Nate ®18微米過濾器,在小兒科和小動物的應用,是用來防止栓塞性血塊和微粒廢物在輸血過程中進入受血者。本研究的目的,是以美國短吻鱷為爬蟲類模型,測定18微米的Hemo-Nate過濾器,在爬蟲類全血輸血時的溶血影響。結果顯示,未過濾和已過濾樣本之間的血漿游離血紅蛋白並無顯著差異(P = 0.21)。過濾前和過濾後的血容積沒有差異(P = 0.41)。結果表明,Hemo-Nate ®18微米過濾器並不會引起少量的短吻鱷血液溶血或血容積下降。

關鍵詞:美國短吻鱷、美國短吻鱷學名、濾血器、輸血、溶血、爬蟲類

Pages 241-246



Bioencapsulation of Metronidazole in Adult Brine Shrimp (Artemia sp.)

Matthew C. Allender, D.V.M., M.S., Mike Kastura, Robert George, D.V.M., Frank Bulman, Jason Yarbrough, and Sherry Cox, Ph.D.

Abstract :A description of bioencapsulation of metronidazole in adult brine shrimp (Artemia) for 2.5 g/L, 5 g/L, and 10 g/L treatment baths is presented. Metronidazole was detected in adult brine shrimp tissue after enrichment periods of 15 min, 30 min, 1 hr, 2 hr, 4 hr, 8 hr, 12 hr, and 24 hr. The assays were performed using high performance liquid chromatography. There was a positive relationship in both dose and time. When evaluating percent uptake, all three baths demonstrated a similar pattern. All three bath concentrations had a high initial concentration that fell at 30 min and slowly began to increase through the end of the study. Survival of shrimp was not affected by bath concentration but decreased over time in all treatment baths comparatively. It can be concluded that metronidazole can be successfully bioencapsulated in adult Artemia.

Key words : Artemia, brine shrimp, metronidazole, bioencapsulation, pharmacology




Metronidazole生物包埋化於成年豐年蝦

翻譯:林佳萱


Matthew C. Allender, D.V.M., M.S., Mike Kastura, Robert George, D.V.M., Frank Bulman, Jason Yarbrough, and Sherry Cox, Ph.D.

摘要:描述利用濃度分別為2.5g/L,5g/L和10g/L的治療浴池來將metronidazole生物包埋於成年豐年蝦中。在之後活動15分鐘,30分鐘,1小時,2小時,4小時,8小時,12小時和24小時後,檢測在成年豐年蝦組織中的metronidazole。用高效液相色層分析進行試驗。在劑量和時間上呈現正相關。當評估攝取百分比時,三種浴池顯示出類似的模式。所有浴池擁有高初始濃度,其在30分鐘後下降且開始慢慢地增加直到研究結束。蝦之存活率不會受到浴池濃度所影響,但在所有治療浴池中會隨著時間相對地下降。由此推斷出可以成功將metronidazole生物包埋於成年豐年蝦內。

關鍵詞:Artemia、豐年蝦、metronidazole、生物包埋化、藥理學
Pages 247-255

Evaluation of Hematology and Serum Biochemistry of Cold-Stunned Green Sea Turtles (Chelonia mydas) in North Carolina, USA

Eric T. Anderson, D.V.M., Craig A. Harms, D.V.M., Ph.D., Dipl. A.C.Z.M., Elizabeth M. Stringer, D.V.M., and Wendy M. Cluse, M.E.M.

Abstract:Hypothermia or cold-stunning is a condition in which the body temperature of an animal decreases below normal physiologic range and which has been linked to severe morbidity in sea turtles. Reports have focused on the physiologic changes caused by cold-stunning in Kemp's Ridley sea turtles (Lepidochelys kempii) and loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta), but few have evaluated the green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas). This study evaluated hematologic and serum biochemical profiles of cold-stunned green sea turtles in North Carolina, USA. When compared with healthy, free-ranging juvenile green turtles from the same region, cold-stunned turtles exhibited hypoglycemia, hypocalcemia (both total and ionized calcium), hyponatremia, hypokalemia, hypoproteinemia, hypoalbuminemia, hyperphosphatemia, and elevations in uric acid and blood urea nitrogen. These findings contrast with some previously reported changes in cold-stunned Kemp's Ridley and loggerhead sea turtles. These results emphasize the importance of basing therapeutic regimens on biochemical analyses in cold-stunned sea turtles.

Key words: Chelonia mydas, cold-stunned, electrolyte imbalance, green sea turtle, hematology, hypothermia, serum biochemistry




美國北卡羅納州凍傷綠蠵龜之血液與血清生化評估

翻譯:林佳萱


Eric T. Anderson, D.V.M., Craig A. Harms, D.V.M., Ph.D., Dipl. A.C.Z.M., Elizabeth M. Stringer, D.V.M., and Wendy M. Cluse, M.E.M.

摘要:低溫或凍傷造成動物體溫降至低於正常生理範圍之情況,與海龜嚴重的發病率有關。多數報告著重於肯普氏海龜和赤蠵龜因凍傷所引起的生理變化,但很少有綠蠵龜的評估。本研究評估美國北卡羅納州,凍傷的綠蠵龜血液與血清生化數值。比較同地區健康、野生之幼年綠蠵龜,凍傷的海龜呈現低血糖、低血鈣(總鈣與鈣離子)、低血鈉、低血鉀、低血蛋白、低白蛋白、低血磷、和尿酸與尿素氮升高。這些結果與之前一些凍傷的肯普氏海龜和赤蠵龜之變化報告相呼應。這些結果強調以生化分析為基礎治療凍傷海龜方法的重要性。

關鍵詞:綠蠵龜學名、凍傷、電解質不平衡、綠蠵龜、血液學、低體溫、血清生化

Pages 256-262



Removal of an Intracoelomic Hook via Laparotomy in a Sandbar Shark (Carcharhinus plumbeus)

Alexis Lécu, D.V.M., Renaud Herbert, B.Sc., Ludwig Coulier, B.Sc., and Michael J. Murray, D.V.M.

Abstract: Twenty-one-year-old male sandbar shark (Carcharhinus plumbeus) demonstrated signs of chronic weight loss even though its appetite remained unchanged. In addition, the gradual development of a red, circular lesion on its ventral body was noted. After months without any significant changes, a ventral fistula appeared revealing the tip of a wire exposed within its center. The shark was immobilized via intramuscular remote injection through dartgun with etomidate; removed from its exhibit tank; and clinically examined with radiographic imaging, a cell blood count/serum chemistry evaluation, and the use of a metal detector along the body wall. A metallic hook was identified in the coelom about 10 cm cranial to the external fistula. The shark was transferred to an isolation pool for 1 mo. A second immobilization via immersion in eugenol was conducted in order to perform a celiotomy. The hook was located in a liver lobe and was surgically removed. After a prolonged recovery from anesthesia, the shark was released into its primary tank and recovered uneventfully, although some of the skin sutures sloughed prematurely.

Key words: elasmobranch, shark, eugenol, etomidate, fish laparotomy, Carcharhinus plumbeus, anesthesia, foreign body, fish hook


開腹手術去除沙洲鯊體腔內的魚鉤

翻譯:李藹芸


Alexis Lécu, D.V.M., Renaud Herbert, B.Sc., Ludwig Coulier, B.Sc., and Michael J. Murray, D.V.M.

摘要:一隻21歲的雄性沙洲鯊食慾正常但表現出慢性消瘦的症狀。除此之外,鯊魚的腹部側出現紅色圓形的病變,在數月沒有明顯變化後病鯊腹側出現瘻管並在中心露出一小段金屬絲。將鯊魚以麻醉槍肌肉注射etomidate麻醉後從居住的展覽水缸中移出進行臨床檢查、照射x光、血球計數和血清化學檢查並沿體壁進行金屬探測。探測後在體腔瘻管頭測約10公分處發現一個鐵鉤後,將鯊魚放入另一隔離的水缸養1個月後,以eugenol浸泡再次麻醉以進行剖腹手術。手術移除位於肝葉上的魚鉤。在麻醉後延長一段回復期過後,鯊魚被放回原本的魚缸,雖然有一些手術縫線過早脫落,但仍完全恢復健康。

關鍵字:軟骨魚、鯊魚、eugenol、etomidate、魚剖腹探查術、沙洲鯊學名、麻醉、異物、魚鉤

Pages 263-276



Clinical Management of a Western Lowland Gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) with a Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy Device

Elizabeth Marie Rush, D.V.M., Anna L. Ogburn, D.V.M., and Denise Monroe, B.S.R.N.

Abstract: A 24-yr-old, male western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) was diagnosed with congestive heart failure using transesophageal and transthoracic echocardiology. New York Heart Association (NYHA) Class III was assigned to the severity of the condition. Over 16 mo, this progressed to NYHA Class IV despite increasing medical therapy. Repeated evaluations suggested that implantation of a cardiac resynchronization therapy device with a defibrillator (CRT-D) could benefit this animal based on clinical signs and underlying evidence of dyssynchrony and suspected fibrotic myocardial disease. Surgical implantation of leads into the right atrium, right ventricle, and left ventricle was accomplished. The CRT-D device was placed under the thoracic pectoral muscles during an initial surgical procedure. Improvement in the gorilla's clinical condition after implantation of the CRT-D device was immediate and dramatic. Subsequent scanning of the device was accomplished through operant conditioning. The data from these device interrogations included stored and real-time cardiac data, which were used to minimize recognized environmental stressors and change device settings. Over 4 yr, case management was critical to successful device use in treatment of the clinical disease. This involved medications, training for device interrogation, exercise to increase activity and improve body condition, and phlebotomy attempts. Dietary management was necessary to manipulate caloric and sodium intake and encourage medication compliance. Cardiac resynchronization therapy device implantation, although requiring specialized equipment and surgical skill, appears to be a viable option for treatment of fibrosing cardiomyopathy with systolic dysfunction in gorillas refractory to medical management. In addition to treatment, this device provides cardiovascular data at rest that could allow for early diagnosis and treatment of gorillas with this and other cardiac conditions in the future. This describes the comprehensive medical, husbandry, and training techniques necessary to successfully manage this intense clinical case in conjunction with intracardiac device therapy.

Key words: Cardiac, cardiac resynchronization therapy, cardiomyopathy, gorilla, implantation, intracardiac device, surgical

心臟節律器在西部低地大猩猩的臨床應用與管理

翻譯:李藹芸


Elizabeth Marie Rush, D.V.M., Anna L. Ogburn, D.V.M., and Denise Monroe, B.S.R.N.

摘要:一隻24歲的雄性西部低地大猩猩,經胸部和食道的心臟超音波診斷,患有鬱血性心臟病。並被判定為紐約心臟協會(NYHA)所分類的第三級嚴重病程。在16個月後,儘管使用了許多的藥物治療,病程仍然發展到了NYHA的第四級。再次評估後,根據臨床症狀評估,認為植入心臟節律器附有除顫器,對這隻動物的心律不整和纖維性心肌病的臨床症狀改善是有益的。手術時將導線植入右心房、右心室和左心室;並將心臟去顫器在手術初期即植入胸肌中。在植入去顫器後,大猩猩的情況迅速且明顯地好轉。後續在運作的過程中完成監測。這些設備的檢測數據,包含儲存和心臟即時的數據,用來降低已知的環境壓力和調整設備的條件設定。經過四年後,病例的管理在醫療設備的使用下,其臨床治療成功的關鍵,涉及到藥物,設備資料判讀的培訓,運動以增加活動量,並改善身體狀況嘗試進行血管切開術。飲食管理是必要的,熱量和鈉的攝入要定量,並在乖乖吃藥的時候給予獎勵。植入心臟節律器的治療需要特殊的設備及手術技巧,是治療大猩猩纖維性心肌病與難以用藥物治療的心肌收縮困難的可行方法。除了治療,這些設備也可以提供心血管資料,作為未來可能的大猩猩心臟疾病早期診斷和醫治的根據。這說明了全面性的醫療、照顧和訓練技術,對成功地與心臟節律器結合,處理這種嚴重的臨床案例是必須的。

關鍵字: 心臟、心臟節律器治療、心肌病、大猩猩、植入、心內儀器、手術的

Pages 277-280


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