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Final Import Risk Analysis Report for Fresh Mango Fruit from India


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Final Import Risk Analysis Report for Fresh Mango Fruit from India



July 2008

© Commonwealth of Australia 2008

This work is copyright. You may download, display, print and reproduce this material in unaltered form only (retaining this notice) for your personal, non-commercial use or use within your organisation. Apart from any use as permitted under the Copyright Act 1968, all other rights are reserved. Requests and inquiries concerning reproduction and rights should be addressed to the Communications Manager, Biosecurity Australia, or e-mailed to: ba@biosecurity.gov.au

Cite this report as:

Biosecurity Australia (2008) Final Import Risk Analysis Report for Fresh Mango Fruit from India. Biosecurity Australia, Canberra.

The Australian Government acting through Biosecurity Australia has exercised due care and skill in preparing and compiling the information in this publication. Notwithstanding, Biosecurity Australia, its employees and advisers disclaim all liability to the maximum extent permitted by law, including liability for negligence, for any loss, damage, injury, expense or cost incurred by any person as a result of accessing, using or relying upon any of the information in this publication.

Postal address:

Biosecurity Australia

GPO Box 858

CANBERRA ACT 2601

AUSTRALIA

Internet: www.biosecurityaustralia.gov.au

Cover image: Mango fruit (Kesar variety)

Contents


Final Import Risk Analysis Report for Fresh Mango Fruit from India 1

July 2008 1

Contents 1

List of Figures 2



List of Figures 2

List of Tables 3



List of Tables 3

Acronyms and abbreviations 5



Acronyms and abbreviations 5

Summary 7



Summary 7

1. Introduction 8



1. Introduction 8

1.1. Australia’s biosecurity policy framework 8

1.1. Australia’s biosecurity policy framework 8

1.2. This import risk analysis 8

1.2. This import risk analysis 8

2. Method for pest risk analysis 11



2. Method for pest risk analysis 11

2.1. Stage 1: Initiation 11

2.1. Stage 1: Initiation 11

2.2. Stage 2: Pest risk assessment 12

2.2. Stage 2: Pest risk assessment 12

2.3. Stage 3: Pest risk management 19

2.3. Stage 3: Pest risk management 19

3. India’s existing commercial production practices for fresh mango fruit 19



3. India’s existing commercial production practices for fresh mango fruit 19

3.1. Assumptions used to estimate unrestricted risk 19

3.1. Assumptions used to estimate unrestricted risk 19

3.2. Production 20

3.2. Production 20

3.3. Exports 20

3.3. Exports 20

3.4. Overview of cultivation practices and post-harvest management of fruit 21

3.4. Overview of cultivation practices and post-harvest management of fruit 21

4. Pest risk assessments for quarantine pests 27



4. Pest risk assessments for quarantine pests 27

4.1. Quarantine pests for pest risk assessment 27

4.1. Quarantine pests for pest risk assessment 27

4.2. Mango pulp weevil – Sternochetus frigidus [Coleoptera: Curculionidae] 28

4.2. Mango pulp weevil – Sternochetus frigidus [Coleoptera: Curculionidae] 28

4.3. Mango seed weevil – Sternochetus mangiferae [Coleoptera: Curculionidae] 35

4.3. Mango seed weevil – Sternochetus mangiferae [Coleoptera: Curculionidae] 35

4.4 Fruit flies [Diptera: Tephritidae] – mangoes as a preferred host 42

4.4 Fruit flies [Diptera: Tephritidae] – mangoes as a preferred host 42

4.5. Fruit flies [Diptera: Tephritidae] – mangoes as a non–preferred host 49

4.5. Fruit flies [Diptera: Tephritidae] – mangoes as a non–preferred host 49

4.6. Armoured scales [Hemiptera: Diaspididae] 49

4.6. Armoured scales [Hemiptera: Diaspididae] 49

4.7. Mealybugs [Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae] 56

4.7. Mealybugs [Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae] 56

4.8. Cocoa tussock moth – Orgyia postica [Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae] 63

4.8. Cocoa tussock moth – Orgyia postica [Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae] 63

4.9. Red-banded mango caterpillar – Deanolis sublimbalis [Lepidoptera: Pyralidae] 64

4.9. Red-banded mango caterpillar – Deanolis sublimbalis [Lepidoptera: Pyralidae] 64

4.10. Mango thrips – Rhipiphorothrips cruentatus [Thysanoptera: Thripidae] 70

4.10. Mango thrips – Rhipiphorothrips cruentatus [Thysanoptera: Thripidae] 70

4.11. Mango malformation – Fusarium mangiferae 71

4.11. Mango malformation – Fusarium mangiferae 71

4.12. Mango scab – Elsinoë mangiferae 78

4.12. Mango scab – Elsinoë mangiferae 78

4.13. Risk assessment conclusion 78

4.13. Risk assessment conclusion 78

5. Pest risk management 81



5. Pest risk management 81

5.1. Risk management measures 81

5.1. Risk management measures 81

5.2. Review of policy 86

5.2. Review of policy 86

6. Conclusion 87



6. Conclusion 87

87




List of Figures


Map of Australia 4

Figure 3.1: Kesar variety mango fruit in a commercial orchard in the State of Maharashtra, India 20

Figure 3.2: Packing house facility for Indian mango fruit, showing hot water fungicidal treatment tank in foreground and washer unit in background 23

Figure 3.3: Weight sizing and grading conveyors for mango fruit 23

Figure 3.4: Alphonso variety mangoes post treatment in the packing house ready for transport to the irradiation treatment facility 24

Figure 3.5: Mango trays loaded onto a refrigerated truck ready for transport to the irradiation facility 25

Figure 3.6: At the irradiation facility in Lasalgoan, Maharashtra, mango fruit are loaded into totes ready for treatment 25



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