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Exam Review

Modified True/False

Indicate whether the sentence or statement is true or false. If false, change the identified word or phrase to make the sentence or statement true.

____ 1. The combustion of 10 g of glucose in oxygen gives the same amount of energy compared to the metabolism of 10 g of glucose by human muscle cells under aerobic conditions. ______________________________

____ 2. The organelle that is unique to eukaryotic photoautotrophs is the chromoplast. _________________________

____ 3. A photosystem contains chlorophyll molecules, accessory pigments, and proteins embedded in a thylakoid membrane. _________________________

____ 4. CAM plants have the same amount of photorespiration as C3 plants. _________________________

____ 5. Microsatellites often consist of numerous repeats of short sequences of base pairs. _________________________

____ 6. During the polymerase chain reaction, RNA primers are used that are complementary to part of the DNA to be copied. These primers act as starting points for Taq polymerase, which builds the new DNA strands in the 5'–3' direction. ______________________________

____ 7. It is important to select a restriction nutrient that does not cut in the plasmid's origin of replication, otherwise the plasmid will fail to replicate properly. _________________________

____ 8. You have a DNA sequence three thousand base pairs long, which you are going to cut using a particular restriction endonuclease. The longer the recognition site of this enzyme, the more fragments you would expect after digestion. _____________________________________________

____ 9. Gel electrophoresis separates DNA fragments on the basis of their size. _________________________

____ 10. During gel electrophoresis, DNA fragments migrate through the gel at a rate that is inversely proportional to the logarithm of their size. _________________________________________

____ 11. If only a small or degraded sample of DNA is available, PCR analysis is used because it has the capacity to amplify the genetic material available. ___________________________________

____ 12. Some animals sun themselves or retreat to shade as a way of regulating their body temperature. ______________________________

____ 13. An increase in body temperature is detected by sensors in the brain. The brain sends a nerve message to the hypothalamus. ______________________________

____ 14. A cross section of the kidney shows an outer layer called the medulla, an inner layer called the cortex, and a hollow chamber called the renal pelvis. ____________________________________________________________

____ 15. Adaptations are any characteristics that allow an organism to reproduce more successfully. _________________________

____ 16. The wing of a bat, the arm of a man, and the flipper of a whale all have a similar number of bones and a similar structure. This is considered to be an example of parallel adaptation. _________________________

____ 17. A species is a group of individuals that are reproductively compatible with each other but not with individuals from other groups. _________________________

____ 18. Australian marsupials show similar body plans to placental mammals. These are examples of homology. ______________________________

____ 19. Darwin’s finches have a similar body plan, but increasingly different traits. These are examples of adaptive radiation. _________________________

____ 20. The maximum number of organisms that can be sustained by available resources over a given period of time is known as the ecological load. ______________________________

____ 21. Barnacles are small crustaceans often found attached to whales. The barnacles are filter feeders and do not appear to harm the whales in any way. This relationship can best be classified as commensalism. _________________________

____ 22. A protist lives in the gut of a termite, digesting cellulose that the termite cannot. This allows the termite to use these nutrients. If the protist is removed, both the protist and termite will die. This is an example of obligatory mutualism. _________________________

____ 23. An agricultural lifestyle allows for less population growth than for a hunter-gatherer lifestyle. _________________________

____ 24. The dispersion pattern of the world's human population can best be described as random. _________________________

____ 25. The majority of wild plants that are suitable for domestication are distributed uniformly around the globe. ______________________________



Multiple Choice

Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

____ 26. Which of the following is the essential characteristic of a polar molecule?



a.

contains double or triple bonds

b.

is formed at extremely low temperatures

c.

contains ions as part of the structure

d.

has an asymmetrical distribution of electrical charge

e.

contains the element oxygen

____ 27. Isomers are molecules that

a.

react readily with one another

b.

have the same molecular formula

c.

have different molecular masses

d.

differ in the number of unsaturated bonds

e.

must contain the same functional group

____ 28. Choose the element that is found in all organic compounds.

a.

nitrogen

d.

hydrogen

b.

carbon

e.

oxygen

c.

sulphur




____ 29. What name is given to compounds in which a carbon atom only bonds to hydrogen and other carbon atoms?

a.

fatty acids

d.

nucleic acids

b.

hydrocarbons

e.

carbohydrates

c.

lipids




____ 30. From the following list, which is an example of a monosaccharide?

a.

maltose

d.

glucose

b.

glycogen

e.

sucrose

c.

cellulose



____ 31. When a molecule of glycerol reacts with one or more fatty acids an ester linkage results. The formation of this linkage is a result of a reaction between



a.

an amino acid and a carboxylic acid

d.

two carboxylic acids

b.

two alcohols

e.

two amino acids

c.

an alcohol and a carboxylic acid



____ 32. When two organic molecules are joined together and a water molecule is removed, the reaction is called which of the following?



a.

dehydration synthesis (condensation)

d.

oxidation

b.

hydrogenation

e.

reduction

c.

hydrolysis



____ 33. The hydrolysis (breakdown) of an ester results in



a.

a sugar and an acid

d.

two sugars

b.

two acids

e.

an acid and an alcohol

c.

an acid and an amine



____ 34. The hydrolysis (breakdown) of a dipeptide results in the production of which of the following?



a.

a sugar and an amino acid

d.

two sugars

b.

two amino acids

e.

an amino acid and an alcohol

c.

an acid and an amine



____ 35. The extremely large diversity of structure seen in proteins is mainly due to



a.

the disulfide and hydrogen bonds that determine molecular shape

b.

the action of the ribosomes

c.

the precise location of specific amino acids, common to all proteins

d.

different numbers, kinds, and sequences of amino acids

e.

different kinds of bonds between successive amino acids

____ 36. An oxidation/reduction is best shown by which of the following?

a.

an amino and carboxyl group form a peptide bond

b.

two small molecules chemically combine to form a large one

c.

a base reacts with an acid to form water and a salt

d.

electrons are transferred from one substance to another

e.

a large molecule is broken into two smaller molecules

____ 37. In the following, what kind of chemical reaction is shown?

R-CHO + H2O + NAD+  R-COOH + NADH + H+



a.

deamination

d.

neutralization

b.

hydrolysis

e.

oxidation/reduction

c.

dehydration synthesis (condensation)



____ 38. During photosynthesis, water molecules are split according to the following reaction:

H2O + NADP+  NADPH + H+ + O2

In the reaction, which substance undergoes reduction?



a.

the hydrogen ions (protons)

d.

the NADP+

b.

the NADPH

e.

the water molecules

c.

the oxygen that is released




____ 39. In most cellular processes, oxidation involves

a.

the loss of oxygen atoms

d.

the gain of electrons

b.

free oxygen

e.

the loss of hydrogen atoms

c.

the gain of hydrogen atoms



____ 40. The activity of an enzyme can be altered by changing the pH of its surroundings slightly. This change in pH works by



a.

causing the enzyme to precipitate

b.

masking its active site

c.

increasing the activation energy of the reaction

d.

breaking its peptide bonds

e.

altering its three dimensional shape

____ 41. Which of the following statements about enzymes is not true?

a.

They are proteins with tertiary or quaternary structures.

b.

They are very specific for the substrate to which they bind.

c.

They will bind their substrate and any isomer of their substrate.

d.

Their names usually end in 'ase.'

e.

All of the above statements are true.

____ 42. Which of the following statements regarding enzyme inhibition is incorrect?

a.

Competitive inhibitors have a similar structure to the normal substrate.

b.

Competitive inhibitors bind to the active site of an enzyme.

c.

Noncompetitive inhibition can be overcome by adding more substrate.

d.

Noncompetitive inhibitors do not have a similar structure to the normal substrate.

e.

Noncompetitive inhibitors do not bind to the active site of an enzyme.

____ 43. Which of the following statements concerning allosteric regulation is not true?

a.

Allosteric sites are usually located next to, but separate from, the active site.

b.

Alosterically controlled enzymes usually have quaternary structure.

c.

'Activators' tend to keep all the active sites available to the normal substrate.

d.

'Allosteric inhibitors' stabilize the inactive form of the enzyme.

e.

Allosteric regulators attach to their sites using weak bonds.

____ 44. Which of the following is not an application of enzymes for commercial or industrial use?



a.

starch hydrolysis for the food industry

b.

proteases to coagulate milk for the manufacture of cheese

c.

removal of lactose from dairy products for lactose intolerant people

d.

lipases added to crude oil before being processed into plastics

e.

proteases added to detergents to remove protein-based stains

____ 45. During aerobic cellular respiration, which of the following is the most common type of reaction to take place in the cell?



a.

hydrolysis

d.

redox

b.

condensation

e.

dehydration

c.

neutralization




____ 46. The following molecules can be found at various stages during cellular respiration:

I. acetyl-CoA

II. carbon dioxide

III. glucose

IV. glyceraldehyde

V. pyruvate

Which of the following sequences represents the above molecules in order from the largest to the smallest amount of chemical energy?

a.

II, I, V, IV, III

d.

III, I, V, IV, II

b.

III, IV, V, I, II

e.

IV, III, II, I, V

c.

III, IV, I, V, II



____ 47. What is the name of the process in which energy is released in a cell in the presence of sufficient oxygen?



a.

anaerobic respiration

d.

glycolysis

b.

aerobic respiration

e.

anabolism

c.

fermentation



____ 48. Proteins are to ribosomes as ATP is to which of the following cell organelles?



a.

centrioles

d.

chromosomes

b.

mitochondria

e.

nucleus

c.

Golgi apparatus



____ 49. During aerobic cellular respiration, which of the following molecules activates Krebs cycle?



a.

citrate

d.

acetyl coenzyme A

b.

pyruvate

e.

carbon dioxide

c.

cytochrome oxidase



____ 50. Anaerobic respiration is less efficient than aerobic respiration for which of the following reasons?



a.

less ATP is produced in anaerobic respiration

b.

aerobic respiration allows for rapid oxidation during strenuous exercise

c.

blood carries more than enough oxygen to support aerobic respiration

d.

only bacteria and yeast use anaerobic respiration

e.

most animals have to breathe air in order to survive

____ 51. When muscles cells do work under anaerobic conditions, the muscle cells

a.

use lactate to synthesize glycogen for glycolysis

b.

use the pyruvate-acetyl-CoA shunt as an alternative energy source

c.

get their energy from oxidative phosphorylation instead

d.

produce lactate and release energy that way

e.

stop functioning, which results in cramping

____ 52. Anaerobic and aerobic respiration are similar in all but one of the following ways. Which one is the exception?



a.

NAD+ is reduced

b.

carbon dioxide is a product

c.

ADP is combined with inorganic phosphate to form ATP

d.

acetaldehyde is converted into ethanol

e.

both can release energy from glucose

____ 53. Amino acids can enter cellular respiration, but first they have to be

a.

deaminated

d.

converted to glucose

b.

hydrolyzed

e.

converted into protein

c.

phosphorylated



____ 54. Ethanol fermentation at a brewery is most likely limited by



a.

the availability of a carbohydrate source

b.

the availability of ATP

c.

the build up of carbon dioxide

d.

the build up of alcohol

e.

the availability of reductant

____ 55. When photosynthetic membranes are stacked in a chloroplast they are called which of the following?



a.

stroma

d.

cristae

b.

lamellae

e.

vesicles

c.

grana



____ 56. In an investigation of the pigments in the leaves of a particular plant, one spot moved 8.0 cm from the origin, while the solvent front moved 10.0 cm. What would the Rf value of the pigment be?



a.

80.0

d.

1.25

b.

8.0

e.

0.8

c.

2.0



____ 57. A high Rf value in paper chromatography implies that the solute



a.

is relatively small

b.

is structurally similar to the solvent

c.

has a high molar mass

d.

has a greater attraction to the paper than the solvent

e.

has a greater attraction to the solvent than the paper

____ 58. When isolated chlorophyll re-emits light as fluorescence, this shows which of the following?

a.

When electron transport is disrupted, electron energy is released as light.

b.

Chlorophyll must work with molecules like ATP to trap lig.

c.

Whole chloroplasts are needed in order for photosynthesis to take place.

d.

The light emitted is the same wavelength as the light used to illuminate the chlorophyll.

e.

Isolated chlorophyll can convert light energy to chemical energy.

____ 59. Which one of the following is not a characteristic of the light reactions?

a.

electrons are displaced

b.

carbon fixation happens

c.

reduction happens

d.

energy is converted from a physical to a chemical form

e.

they take place in the thylakoids of chloroplasts

____ 60. A kind of herbicide works by disrupting the structure of the internal membranes of a chloroplast. Which segment of photosynthesis would be the most affected?

a.

activation of the photosystems

d.

manufacture of ATP

b.

reduction of chlorophyll

e.

evolution of oxygen

c.

absorption of light



____ 61. Electrons released as a result of photolysis



a.

combine with H+ ions and oxygen to form water

b.

are used directly in the fixation of carbon during the Calvin cycle

c.

reduce photosystem I chlorophyll molecules

d.

reduce photosystem II chlorophyll molecules

e.

oxidize NADP+

____ 62. Photon energy, captured by chlorophyll a, is transferred as chemical energy to



a.

carbon dioxide

d.

carotenoids

b.

glucose

e.

a series of hydrogen acceptors

c.

other chlorophylls



____ 63. Photophosphorylation involves which of the following?



a.

chlorophyll

b.

a proton gradient across the thylakoids

c.

production of ATP

d.

photons

e.

all of the above

____ 64. Which of the following statements concerning photolysis is correct?

I. it can take place during the fixation of carbon

II. it involves NADP

III. it occurs in the thylakoid of the chloroplast

IV. oxygen gas is produced

V. in involves at least one carbon-containing compound



a.

I and III only

d.

III and IV only

b.

II and IV only

e.

none of the above

c.

I, II, and III only



____ 65. When photosynthesis occurs, the oxygen that is released comes from



a.

chlorophyll

d.

water

b.

an intermediate of the Calvin cycle

e.

carbon dioxide

c.

a carbohydrate



____ 66. Which of the following is/are characteristics of CAM plants?

I. special leaf anatomy

II. stomata open at night

III. more likely to occur at lower temperatures.

IV. pineapples

V. pyruvate kinase

a.

I, II and III

d.

I, III, V

b.

I and III

e.

none of the above

c.

II and IV



____ 67. Temporal separation refers to



a.

the Calvin cycle

d.

cellular respiration

b.

the C4 pathway

e.

oxidative phosphorylation

c.

the CAM pathway



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