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Europe at Present [Spring 2003]


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Europe at Present [Spring 2003]

Note:

papers submitted have been shortened. Majority of pictures [and tables] have been erased, too. If you wish to recall the latter use the internet pages indicated as Sources. A paper On national symbols will be displayed separately.

To answer questions below combine different papers and materials distributed earlier.

European languages and ethnic groups 4

Introduction – the roots of European languages 4

1. Indo-Europeans 4

Map 2: Possible origin of Proto-Indo-Europeans 4

Map 3: Indo-European tribes 4

Map 4: Dispersion of Indo-Europeans 4

II. European languages and ethnic groups at present 5

1.The Romance languages area in Europe 5

2.2. The Celtic Languages 7

Ewa Glezman (Editor), Anna Dzienis, Jakub Nowacki, Tomasz Kula 10

Multilingual countries in Europe 10

Grand Duchy of Luxembourg 10

The Spanish languages that are officially recognized by the Statutes of the Autonomous Communities are: Euskera (País Vasco and Navarra), Gallego (Galicia), Catalan (Cataluna and Islas Baleares) and Comunidad Valenciana where, as stated at the Dictionary of the Real Academia, this variety of Catalan is called Valenciano. Other Statutes give special protection for the following Spanish languages: Bable in Asturias and the linguistic diversity in Aragón. 13

Castilian 13

Catalan 13

INSTITUT D'ESTUDIS CATALANS, Carme, 47, 08071 BARCELONA (Spain) 13

REAL ACADEMIA GALLEGA, Tabernas, 11, 15071 La Coruna (Spain) 13

REAL ACADEMIA DE LA LENGUA VASCA-EUSKALTZAINDIA, Arbieto, 3, 48071 Bilbao (Vizcaya), (Spain) 13

The Balkans. 16

The Background, the War and the Split 16

THE BALKANS BEFORE THE RISE OF THE YUGOSLAV FEDERATION (UNTIL 1918) 17

FROM THE ECONOMIC TO POLITICAL CRISIS (1980-1989) 19

MARCH TOWARDS WAR (1989-1991) 19

Agata Bzyl, Marta Kowalczyk, Jakub Maczel 25

The Flemish-Waloon Conflict in Belgium 25

Historical Background of the conflict 25

Background of the conflict 26

HUNGARY 30

HUNGARIAN CUSINE 32

The Hungarians are hospitable people, always ready to offer guests delicious food and excellent wines. The country's unique cuisine has influences from the Central Asian Magyar founders of the nation, Turks, Germans, French, Austrians, Czechs, Slovaks, Serbians, and Croatians. The simple agrarian and shepherd lifestyles of the Great Hungarian Plain and mountains have also helped to shape the country's unique dishes. While many popular restaurants in Hungary have adapted their cooking to today's lighter style of eating, traditional Hungarian cuisine is for those with hearty appetites. 32

Italy 33

Abruzzo and Molise 36

Umbria and Marche 36

Calabria and Basilicata 36

Apulia 36

Sicilia 36

Piedmont 36

Liguria 36

Lombardy 36

Friuli – Venezia Giulia 36

Trident –Alto Adige 36

Emilia –Romagna 36

Lazio 36

The Scandinavian Nations 37

The Links. The Split. Egalitarian Approach. 37

SWITZERLAND - SWISS CONFEDERATION 46

Languages 46

Federal Assembly 47

Bundesrat 47

“Magic formula” 48

Districts 48

Municipalities 48

The rule of subsidarity 48

Differences within Switzerland 48

CHAPTER III. Switzerland’s foreign policy 49

Federal Department of Foreign Affairs 49

The role of Federal Department of Foreign Affairs 49

RELIGIONS IN EUROPE 50

MAIN RELIGIONS IN EUROPE 52

PAGANISM AND LOCAL FAITHS 54

Education in Europe 55

European holidays 58

Introduction 58

1.Cross-country overview of Christmas traditions (Bartosz Pustuł) 58

1.1.Armenia – Christmas celebrated three times! 59

1.2.Austria – home of “Silent Night” 59

1.3.Bulgaria – pat me with a stick and happy I shall be! 59

1.4.Czech Republic – beware, death is coming... 59

1.5.Denmark – candles and joy 59

1.6.Finland – home of Santa. 59

1.7.France – no reindeers please, just donkeys! 59

1.8.Germany – Tannenbaum’s homeland 59

1.9.Greece – pig slaughter and freezing divers. 60

1.10.Hungary – complex chair 60

1.11.Iceland – 13 Santas... 60

1.12.The Netherlands – Santa comes from Spain! 60

1.13.Scotland – short tradition of Christmas. 60

1.14.Spain 60

1.15.Ukraine 60

1.16.Wales – carol contest. 60

2.Selection of European customs and holidays 61

2.1.April Fool’s Day – Prima Aprilis (Anna Radecka) 61

2.2.La Tomatina. 61

2.3.”San Fermin – Running of the Bulls” 62

2.4.St. Patrick’s Day – March 17. (Mateusz Homa) 63

2.5.St. Lucia Day – December 13 63

2.6.Guy Fawkes Day – “Remember, remember the 5th of November” 63

2.7.Oktoberfest 64

European Alcohols 65

SPAIN 67


PORTUGAL 68

LUXEMBOURG 68

HUNGARY 68

ROMANIA & BULGARIA 68

SWITZERLAND 68

AUSTRIA 68

UNITED KINGDOM 69

THE FORMER USSR 69

SPIRITS 71

SPIRIT DRINKING COUNTRIES 71

The countries in which the spirit consumption is still dominant are these of Eastern Europe, such as Poland, Slovakia, Russia, Belarus, and the Baltic States (Table S1). Many traditionally spirit drinking countries of Northern Europe have switched to beer over the last few years, however we decided to include Norway, Finland, Sweden and the Netherlands into this category because of their long tradition in spirit drinking. The consumption of spirits was rather stable until the 70s and has been on the decline since then. From the non-spirit drinking countries, it is the Greeks, the French & the Spanish who consume most spirits. It is worth mentioning that in Eastern Europe there is practically one type of spirit, while the spirits of Western Europe are much more diversified. 71

As far as spirits production is concerned, Russia leads the way in Europe, followed – surprisingly – by the United Kingdom and then the Ukraine, Germany and France (Table S2). It must be pointed out, however, that a lot of spirits are manufactured illegally or at home due to high excise tax. 71

VODKA 71

WHISKY 72

Irish whiskey 72

Other whiskies 73

GIN 73

Dry gin 73



BRANDY 73

Cognac 73

Armagnac 74

Other grape brandies 74

Fruit brandies 74

The last group of alcohols consumed throughout Europe comprises all the beverages that cannot be classified in neither of the described gruoups. The variety of kinds here is enormous so we could only point out the best known and most often consumed ones. The three biggest subgroups here are aperitifs, liqueurs and dessert wines. Let’s start with aperitifs. 74

APERITIFS 74

The word ‘aperitif’ derives from the Latin aperire - to open. It is as an ‘opener’ to the appetite that aperitifs are usually taken, therefore every kind of alcohol may be an aperitif but there are some special and unique ones worth mentioning. 74

Małgorzata Miko, Michał Dąbrowski, Paweł Zagrajek 76

European cuisine 76

Introduction. 76

I. Scandinavian cuisine 76

The role of religion. 78

Film Festivals in Europe 82

Introduction 82

Małgorzata Czoch, Łukasz Momot 86

LIFE IN IBIZA 86

ORGANISED CRIME IN EUROPE 88

'Ndrangheta 90

Terrorism in Europe 93

Tourism in Europe 95

FRANCE 98

Moominworld 103

WOMEN IN EUROPE 103

1. INTRODUCTION 103

5. VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN 107

Check Your Knowledge 108


Ewa Lewandowska, Sławomira Kuśmierz, Michał Maludziński, Leszek Baj

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