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Essential Attributes of Allah – صفات ذات الله تعالى


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Essential Attributes of Allahصفات ذات الله تعالى

According to the Ash´ari ´aqida, the following 20 attributes, established in the Essence (Dhat) of Allah (i.e. inherent in Him), are logically necessary (wajib). E.g. Allah necessarily exists – He is wajib al-wujud. It is therefore imperative to believe in them, and to negate their opposites.



The essential attribute | الصفة النفسية

  1. Being | الوجود


The negative attributes | الصفات السلبية

  1. Existence from pre-eternity | القدم

  2. Everlastingness | البقاء

  3. His being different from all that is accidental | مخالفته تعلى للحوادث

  4. His Self-subsistence | قيامه تعالى بنفسه

  5. Oneness | الوحدانية


Abstract (affirmative) attributes | صفات المعاني

  1. Power | القدرة

  2. Will | الإرادة

  3. Knowledge | العلم

  4. Life | الحياة

  5. Hearing | السمع

  6. Seeing | البصر

  7. Speech | الكلام


Connected to the abstract attributes | الصفات المعتوعة

  1. His being powerfull | كونه قديرا

  2. His exerting will | كونه مريدا

  3. His being knowledgable | كونه عليما

  4. His being alife | كونه حيا

  5. His being hearing | كونه سميعا

  6. His being seeing | كونه بصير

  7. His being a speaker | كونه متكلما

Logically Impossible Attributes of Allahما يستحيل في حق الله تعالى

The aforementioned Attributes being logically necessary for Allah, it is logically impossible (mustahil) for Him to have the opposite attributes. E.g. it is impossible for Him to be non-existent, unable, not seeing, etc.



Logically Possible Attributes of Allah - ما يجوز في حق الله تعالى

Allah has an infinite set of Attributes regarding what is possible (ja’iz) for Him. In summary, everything that is not logically impossible is possible for him. For instance, it is possible for him to create or not to create, to give life and to extinguish life, to send Messengers or not to send them etc.




Attributes of Creation | صفات التكوين

The Maturidi ´aqdida adds to the Affirmative Attributes of Allah an eighth category named the Attributes of Creation (Takwin). Allah has been the the Creator from pre-eternity before He created anything, and He is the Creator whether He creates or does not create. Hence, according to the Maturidi creed, the Attributes of Creation are established in His Dhat. These are attributes like:

His Creating from nothing | التخليق

His Producing from nothing | الإنشاء

His Creating something similar to what He created before | الإبداع

His Supplying Rizq | الترزيق

His giving life | الإحياء

Etc.


According to the Ash´ari ´aqida, Creation emanates from His Knowledge, Will and Power. The capacity to create is referred to His Power, established in His Essence, while the act of creation is connected with contingent things, and hence can not be part of His Essence.

Attributes of Action | الصفات الفعلية

The Maturidi ´aqdida uses the term Attributes of Action for attributes the opposites of which are also attributes of Allah, such as His Wrath, the opposite of which is Rahma. In the Ash´ari ´aqida this falls under what is logically possible for Him.


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