ENERGY AND WATER STATISTICS – 2005
This issue of the Economic and Social Indicators on Energy and Water Statistics contains data for the years 2004 and 2005. These statistics have been compiled in close collaboration with the Ministry of Public Utilities, the Central Electricity Board, the Central Water Authority, the petroleum companies, the Independent Power Producers and the Meteorological Services. All data refer to the Republic of Mauritius, unless stated otherwise.
2.1 The energy balance
The energy balance (Tables 1 & 2) shows the supply and final uses of electricity and the different types of fuel. Total primary energy requirement is obtained as the sum of the indigenous production (hydro, fuelwood and bagasse) and imports less re-exports and bunkering, after stock adjustments. Final energy consumption is the total amount of energy required by end users as a final product. End-users are categorised into five sectors, namely manufacturing, transport, commercial and distributive trade, residential and agriculture.
In order to compare the energy content of the different fuels, a common accounting unit, namely, tonne of oil equivalent (toe) is used. The conversion factors are given on page 7.
2.2 Total primary energy requirement
During the year 2005, the total primary energy requirement increased by 3.0%, from 1,256 ktoe to 1,293 ktoe (Table 3).
The total primary energy requirement of the country was derived from imported fuels (79.7%) and locally available sources (20.3%). In 2005, imported petroleum products represented 805 ktoe, the main components of which being fuel oil (31.5%), diesel (26.6%), aviation fuel (17.8%) and gasolene (12.4%). The share of imported coal accounted for 226 ktoe which showed a 26.3% increase when compared to 179 ktoe in 2004. This high increase of coal in the primary energy requirements was partly due to the coming into operation in 2005 of a new Independent Power Producer, the Centrale Thermique du Sud Ltd which generates electricity only from coal.
The indigenous production was mainly derived from bagasse (93.3%), hydro electricity (3.8%) and fuelwood (2.9%).
The total primary energy requirement index, expressed with 1990 as reference year (1990 = 100), increased by 5.2 points or 3.0% from 171.8 in 2004 to 177.0 in 2005. Per capita primary energy requirement increased by 2.0% from 1.02 toe to 1.04 toe (Table 16).
Energy intensity defined as total primary energy requirement (toe) per Rs 100,000 of GDP (in 1990 rupees) provides a measure of the efficiency with which energy is being used in production. A higher ratio indicates a less efficient use of energy. As shown in Table 16, energy intensity, which stood at 1.59 in 2004, rose to 1.60 in 2005.
2.2.1 Local production
Total energy production from local sources decreased by 4.7% from 276 ktoe in 2004 to 263 ktoe in 2005. Production of hydroelectricty went down from 10.6 ktoe to 9.9 ktoe while, in terms of energy content, production of bagasse decreased from 258 ktoe to 245 ktoe (Table 3).
2.2.2 Imports of energy sources
Data on imports of energy sources show that some 1,304 ktoe of petroleum products and coal were imported in 2005 compared to 1,226 ktoe in 2004, representing an increase of 6.4%. Petroleum products increased from 1,020 ktoe to 1,069 ktoe (+4.8%) and coal from 206 ktoe to 235 ktoe (+14.1%). As a result of higher prices of petroleum products and coal, the import bill was 54% higher in 2005, Rs 14,922 million against Rs 9,685 million in 2004 (Table 4).
2.2.3 Re-exports and bunkering
Of the 1,304 ktoe of imported energy sources, about 290 ktoe (22.2%) were supplied to foreign vessels and aircraft. Re-exports consisted of 137 ktoe of diesel oil, 101 ktoe of aviation fuel and 53 ktoe of fuel oil (Table 5).
2.3 Electricity generation
Some 2,272 GWh (195 ktoe) of electricity was generated in 2005 as compared to 2,165 GWh (186 ktoe) in 2004, representing an increase of 4.9%. The Central Electricity Board (CEB) generated 53.2% and Independent Power Producers, 46.8%. Thermal energy represented 94.9% and hydro, the remaining 5.1%. The peak demand in 2005 reached 353.1 MW (Tables 6, 7 and 8).
2.3.1 Fuel input for electricity generation
The different types of fuel used for electricity generation are shown in Table 9. Fuel input increased by 6.5%, from 572 ktoe in 2004 to 609 ktoe in 2005. The major components of the fuel input were coal (34.7%), fuel oil (34.2%) and bagasse (27.7%).
Electricity sales increased by 4.3% from 1,704 GWh in 2004 to 1,777 GWh in 2005. The average sales price of electricity increased from Rs 3.14 per KWh to Rs 3.23 per KWh during the same period (Table 10).
The consumption of electricity per capita per annum stood at 1,429 kWh in 2005 compared to 1,382 kWh in 2004 (Table 16).
Final energy consumption
Final energy consumption increased by 1.0% from 838 ktoe in 2004 to 846 ktoe in 2005. “Transport” and “Manufacturing” were the two largest energy-consuming sectors accounting for 49.5% and 29.4% respectively. They were followed by “Households” (13.6%), “Commercial and Distributive Trade” (6.6%) and Agriculture (0.6%). The details on the different types of fuel consumed by each sector and the respective amounts are given in Table 11.
Energy used for manufacturing process went down by 3.9% from 259 ktoe in 2004 to 249 ktoe in 2005. The contribution of bagasse was 76 ktoe, electricity, 67 ktoe, fuel oil, 45 ktoe and diesel oil, 42 ktoe.
In 2005, some 419 ktoe of energy were used for transportation, representing a rise of 2.4% over last year. Consumption of gasolene increased from 98 ktoe to 100 ktoe (+2.0%) and that of diesel oil from 166 ktoe to 168 ktoe (+1.2%). Consumption of aviation fuel remained at 143 ktoe. It should be noted that the use of LPG in the transport sector has increased considerably, more than twofold, from 2.9 ktoe in 2004 to 7.3 ktoe in 2005.
Energy consumed by households increased by 3.6% to reach 115 ktoe in 2005. The two main sources of energy for households were electricity and LPG, representing 45.3% and 40.4% respectively of total energy consumption by households. Consumption of electricity increased by 5.7% whilst that of LPG by 0.9%.
Commercial and Distributive Trade
Total energy consumption by “Commercial and Distributive Trade” sector rose by 9.8%, from 51 ktoe in 2004 to 56 ktoe in 2005. Electricity was the main source of energy and its consumption increased from 44 ktoe to 48 ktoe (+9.1%).
Electricity and diesel were the only two sources of energy used in agriculture. In 2005, about 2.3 ktoe of electricity were used for irrigation and 2.4 ktoe of diesel oil were used for derocking of land and for the preparation of soil prior to plantation.
Table 12 shows the amount of rainfall recorded around the islands of Mauritius and Rodrigues. During the year 2005, the mean amount of rainfall recorded around the island of Mauritius was 2,372 millimetres, a 4.5% increase compared to 2,270 millimetres in 2004. The mean rainfall was highest during the month of March with 727 mm and the driest month, November, registered only 48 mm of rainfall.
In Rodrigues, the mean rainfall registered was 1,275 millimetres at Pointe Canon and 1,126 millimetres at Plaine Corail.
Water storage level
In 2005, due to the abundant rainfall, the water storage level of all the reservoirs remained above normal, except for La Nicoliere. During the same period the mean water level for all the reservoirs combined together (excluding Midlands Dam) was above normal for nine months of the year (Table 13). It is to be noted that the mean water level is computed as the average level during a month, and the normal is the long term mean level for 1990 to 1999.
In 2005 the total volume of potable water treated by the different treatment plants amounted to 195 million cubic metres (Mm3), a 5.4% increase compared to 185 Mm3 in 2004. During the same year, average water production from surface and ground water represented 48.2% and 51.8% respectively (Table 14).
Water sales and revenue collectible
Total volume of water sold increased from 102 Mm3 in 2004 to 108 Mm3 in 2005 (+5.9%). In 2005, potable water made up 86.9% of the volume sold and the remaining 13.1% consisted of non-treated water. Water for domestic consumption amounted to 73 Mm3, accounting for nearly 67.8% of the water sales.
The amount of revenue collectible for the year 2005 amounted to Rs 934.5 million, that is an increase of 4.1% over the amount of Rs 897.5 million for 2004 (Table 15).
Central Statistics Office
Ministry of Finance and Economic Development
Mr. Y. Thorabally (Statistician)
Ministry of Public Utilities
Level 10, Air Mauritius Centre
President John Kennedy Street
Tel: 210-0408/3435 Fax: 208-6497 Email: email@example.com
Concepts and Terminology
The energy data have been compiled according to the recommendations of the United Nations Manual, Series F No. 29 on Energy Statistics.
Energy means the capacity for doing work or for producing heat. Producing heat is a common manifestation of "doing work" as are producing light and motive force.
Primary energy designates energy from sources that involve only extraction or capture, with or without separation from contiguous material, cleaning or grading, before the energy embodied in that source can be converted into heat or mechanical work. Primary energy is not derived from any other form of energy. By convention, sources of energy that occur naturally such as coal, natural gas, fuel wood are termed primary energy.
Secondary energy designates energy from all sources of energy that results from transformation of primary sources.
The term fuel is used to describe those energy sources, whether primary or secondary, that must be subjected to combustion or fission in order to release for use the energy stored up inside them.
Bunkers relate to fuels sold to ships irrespective of their flags of ownership or registration. Re-exports include aviation fuel delivered to foreign aircraft. Aviation fuel delivered to aircraft owned by the national airline is included as final consumption in the transport sector.
Primary energy requirement
It is the sum of imported fuels and locally available fuels less re-exports of bunkers and aviation fuel to foreign aircraft after adjusting for stock changes.
- Primary energy input to hydro electricity.
The primary energy input to hydro electricity is defined as the energy value of the electricity generated from hydro.
Energy conversion factors
The following energy conversion factors have been used to express the energy content for the different fuels in terms of a common accounting unit, tonnes of oil equivalent (toe).
Gasolene 1 1.08
Diesel Oil 1 1.01
Dual Purpose Kerosene (DPK) 1 1.04
Fuel oil 1 0.96
Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) 1 1.08
Coal 1 0.62
Bagasse 1 0.16
Fuel Wood 1 0.38
Charcoal 1 0.74
Hydro/Wind 1 86
Electricity 1 86
1 toe = 41.84 gigajoule (net calorific value)
The following technical abbreviations have been used throughout the report.
toe Tonne of oil equivalent
ktoe Thousand tonnes of oil equivalent
LPG Liquefied Petroleum Gas
MW Megawatt (1,000 kW)
kWh Kilowatt hour
GWh Gigawatt hour
CEB Central Electricity Board
IPP Independent Power Producers
GDP Gross Domestic Product