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Dette bachelorprojekt er udarbejdet på sociologiuddannelsens semester på Aalborg Universitet i foråret 2009. Dette er gjort under projekttitlen "Freaks vs. Geeks"


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Dette bachelorprojekt er udarbejdet på sociologiuddannelsens 6. semester på Aalborg Universitet i foråret 2009. Dette er gjort under projekttitlen ”Freaks vs. Geeks”.


Vi sender en tak til Claus D. Hansen for kyndig vejledning og ikke mindst vores informanter for aktiv, underholdende og engageret deltagelse – uden jeres hjælp ville dette projekt ikke være muligt.
Antal ord: 43.832
Daniel Grøn Paulsen
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Emil Skov Mathiesen
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Finn Herlin Skytte
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Jeppe Fuglsang Larsen
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Rasmus Hammer
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Summary

This project finds itself in the field of music sociology. The main focus is the discourses a group of individuals with a preference for a specific music genre use to talk about their own genre, and other types of music. The genres that are dealt with in this project, is indie, metal and hiphop. To reach a satisfying and research-based knowledge about these types of music and the culture that surrounds them, we have carried out a systemic functional linguistic analysis upon music magazines representing each genre. This analysis is the basic foundation of knowledge about the music types that the interview guide is built upon. The empirical data conducted in this project revolves around two focus group interviews, one with a group of people with a preference for metal music and one with a group with a preference for indie music. Both these groups were asked about characteristics of their own music genre and about the people that listen to the type of music. Other than this, they were asked to categorize the two other genres. By this we have gained knowledge about the discourses the group of people with preference for metal music use to describe the characteristics of their own genre and the culture surrounding it, and furthermore about how they categorize people with a preference for either indie music or hiphop. The same information is gained in the interview with the group with a preference for indie music. The discourse analysis used is discourse psychology, which also is used to analyze group dynamics in the focus group interviews.

The discourses that the metal group used about their own genre to describe their characteristics revolved around the way they view themselves as a group of people that are outsiders from the “normal” society. The symbols and black clothing, that is part of the metal culture, focuses on themes such as masculinity, brutality, death and destruction. This adds to the general feeling of being a rebel and underlines that the norms in the metal culture is far from the norms in the “normal” society. The metal group sees this outsider role as positive, the worst you can do is to be “normal” and mainstream. The masculinity is important, which is shown in the way the metal group categorizes people with preference for indie music. The metal group categorizes them as feminine, sophisticated and sensitive, all characteristics that are far away from what constitutes the metal group.
To distance oneself from the mainstream society is also a characteristic of the indie group. One of the main goals for the group with preference for indie music is to find music that is their own, that no one else listens to. They are constantly seeking new ways of expressing their individuality and uniqueness. Other than trough music this is exemplified in their clothing, which preferably has to be bought in thrift shops, so that they can be sure that no one else has the exact same outfit. In their categorization of people with preference for metal music they distance themselves from the extremes that the metal genre represents, for example the positive association with the gloomy and dark expressions and that of being outsiders, which is a much more radical dissociation from the “normal” society than the indie people can relate to.

The two groups were also asked to talk about people with a preference for hiphop music and hiphop culture in general. The discourses used mainly revolved around respect and association for one part of hiphop, the old school hiphop that focus on good texts and staying true to the culture and dissociation for the newer “bling bling” hiphop, which is superficial and a form of hiphop that has “sold out” in comparison to the original culture.

These discourses used to describe one’s own genre and categorize other genres are analyzed trough Richard Jenkins’s theory about collective identification. The way you categorize other groups, the external collective definition, and define the difference between your own group and other groups, says as much of what elements that constitute your own group, as the positive way you describe your own group, the internal collective definition. These two types of definitions are used to define what constitutes a collective identification around indie music and metal music. Richard Jenkins’ theory hereby works as the main theory in this project. Other theorists are used, some only work as heuristic tools for understanding concrete empirical findings, like Theodor Adorno’s view on mainstream culture, George Simmel’s opinion on fashion, and Axel Honneth’s theory about recognition, while other are used to gain a more abstract and societal-level understanding of the empirical findings, like Anthony Giddens’ view on the late modern reflexive society, Erving Goffman’s theatrical metaphor for understanding the creation of identity, Norbert Elias’ distinction between established groups and outsider groups and Zygmunt Bauman’s view on postmodern communities.


1. Indledning 3

2. Genstandsfelt 3

2.1 Musikken i samfundet og det musiksociologiske felt 4

2.2 På giganters skuldre 7

2.3 Problemstilling 10

2.3.1 Problemformulering 11

2.3.2 Begrebsdefinition 11

2.4 Afgrænsning 11

3. Forskningsstrategi 13

3.1 Det teorifortolkende casestudie 13

3.2 Socialkonstruktivisme 16

3.3 Opsummering 17

4. Metodevalg 17

4.1 Fokusgruppeinterviewet 18

4.1.1 Udvælgelse af informanter 20

4.1.2 Rekrutteringen af informanter 22

5. Diskursanalyse 25

5.1 Hvad er diskursanalyse? 25

5.2 Kritisk diskursanalyse 26

5.3 Systemisk Funktionel Lingvistik 27

5.3.1 Kulturkonteksten 28

5.3.2 Metafunktioner 28

5.4 Anvendelse af Systemisk Funktionel Lingvistik 29

5.4.1 Musikmagasiner 30

6. SFL-analyse af musikbladene 31

6.1 Metal Hammer 31

6.1.1 Ideationel metafunktion 32

6.1.1.1 Leksikalske kæder 32

6.1.2 Interpersonel metafunktion 34

6.1.3 Opsummering 35

6.1.4 Argumentation for valg af musik og billeder 35

6.2 Soundvenue 37

6.2.1 Idealtionel metafunktion 38

6.2.1.1 Leksikalske kæder 38

6.2.3 Interpersonel metafunktion 39

6.2.4 Opsummering 40

6.3 Argumentation for valg af musik og billeder 40

6.3 Actionspeax 42

6.3.1 Idealtionel metafunktion 44

6.3.2 Interpersonel metafunktion 45

6.3.3 Opsummering 46

7. Interviewene 49

7.1 Interviewguidens opbygning 49

7.2 Interviewenes forløb 51

7.2.1 Indieinterviewet 52

7.2.2 Metalinterviewet 52

8. Teori 53

8.1 Richard Jenkins’ social identitetsteori 53

8.2 Kollektiv identifikation 53

8.2.1 Kategorisering eller gruppe 54

8.2.2 Anvendelse af kollektive identifikation 55

9. Diskurspsykologi 56

9.1 Et diskurspsykologisk syn på gruppedynamikker 58

9.2 Analysestrategi 59

10. Analyse 60

10.1 Kulturelle kendetegn ved indiekulturen 60

10.2 Kulturelle kendetegn i metalkulturen 72

10.3 Indiefolkenes kategorisering af hiphoppere og metalhoveder 82

10.3.1 Kategorisering af hiphoppere 82

10.3.2.1 Kategorisering af metalhoveder 88

10.3.2.1.1 Opsummering 92

10.4 Metalfolkenes kategorisering af indielyttere og hiphoppere 93

10.4.1 Kategorisering af indielyttere 94

10.4.2 Kategorisering af hiphoppere 99

10.4.3 Opsummering 102

10.5 Sammenligning 103

10.6 Afsluttende analyse 106

10.7 Generalisering af resultater 109

11. Konklusion 110

12. Litteratur 112

13. Bilag 115

13.1 Bilag A 115

13.1.1 Metal interviewguide 115

13.1.2 Indie interviewguide 116

13.2 Bilag B 118

13.2.1 Opslag 118


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