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Daily Temperature and Precipitation Data


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National Climatic Data Center
DATA DOCUMENTATION
FOR
DATA SET 9806A (DSI-9806A)

Daily Temperature and Precipitation Data


for 223 USSR Stations

January 2, 2003

National Climatic Data Center

151 Patton Ave.

Asheville, NC 28801-5001 USA




Table of Contents

Topic Page Number
1. Abstract................................................... 3
2. Element Names and Definitions: ............................ 7
3. Start Date.................................................14
4. Stop Date..................................................14
5. Coverage...................................................14
6. How to order data..........................................14
7. Archiving Data Center. ....................................14
8. Technical Contact..........................................14
9. Known Uncorrected Problems.................................14
10. Quality Statement..........................................15
11. Essential Companion Data Sets..............................15
12. References.................................................15


1. Abstract: This data set contains daily temperature and precipitation measurements collected at 223 USSR stations over the period 1881 1993. It was originally compiled from digital and manuscript records archived at the Research Institute of Hydrometeorological Information (RIHMI) in Obninsk, Russia. These data were acquired as a result of a bilateral initiative known as the Agreement on Protection of the Environment established on May 23, 1972 between the United States and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR). The primary goal of the initiative, which remains active despite the breakup of the USSR, is to promote cooperation between the two countries (Russia and the United States) on numerous environmental protection issues. Currently, the agreement fosters joint research in at least 11 "Working Groups" (i.e., areas of study) one of which is Working Group VIII.
Given recent interest in possible greenhouse gas induced climate change, Working Group VIII has become particularly useful to the scientific communities of both nations. Among its achievements is to promote the transfer of climatological information between the principal climate data centers in each country [i.e., the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) in Asheville, North Carolina, and the RIHMI in Russia]. A considerable amount of data has been exchanged as a result of this project. This data set of daily temperature and precipitation was acquired in 1990 with periodic updates continuing in the 1990s. In 1993, the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center performed an extensive examination of these data and produced a Numeric Data Package for these data from which this documentation was largely derived.
Daily mean, minimum, and maximum temperatures are available (to the nearest tenth of a degree Celsius) for each station. Temperature observations were taken eight times a day from 1966 93, four times a day from 1936 65, and three times a day from 1881 1935. Daily mean temperature is defined as the average of all observations for each calendar day. Daily maximum/minimum temperatures are derived from maximum/minimum thermometer measurements. To identify potentially erroneous data, two flag codes accompany each daily value.
Daily precipitation totals are also available (to the nearest tenth of a millimeter) for each station. Throughout the record, daily precipitation is defined as the total amount of precipitation recorded during a 24 hour period, snowfall being converted to a liquid total by melting the snow in the gauge. From 1936 on, rain gauges were checked several times each day; the cumulative total of all observations during a calendar day was presumably used as the daily total. Wetting corrections <=0.2 mm were applied beginning in 1966, depending upon the type and amount of precipitation. As with temperature, two data quality flags accompany each daily total.


The size of the observing network has increased with time. Twenty three sites contain daily measurements dating to 1881 (though for 76 stations, maximum and/or minimum temperature observations began several years after mean temperature and precipitation). Aside from the period 1914 21 (i.e., during World War I, the Russian Revolution, and the Civil War), the number of stations rose at a relatively constant rate over the next half century. The largest change in the network occurred in 1936, when an additional 65 observing posts were opened. Thereafter, only modest additions are evident, all stations collecting data by 1966 and only five (Adamovka, Vereb'e, Oktiabr'skaya, Rostov na Donu, and Surgut) closing before 1989. As the number of operational stations increased, spatial coverage improved. The distribution of posts early in the record, for example, is biased. In fact, most stations were located in population centers west of the Ural Mountains and at ports along the Black and Caspian seas, whereas vast tracts of Siberia were entirely unsampled. Spatial coverage was much more representative of the country for the mid 1930s, with the exception of certain areas east of the Urals and north of the Arctic Circle. From a practical standpoint, the data set can probably be used to study long term climate variations over the entire USSR for the period 1936 93. The density of stations, as well as their spatial distribution, was even better by 1985. Except for areas along the coast of the Arctic Ocean, most of the country was extremely well sampled. In general, however, Arctic regions in the eastern part of the country are somewhat underrepresented throughout the record. The amount of missing data varies from element to element and station to station. Typically, the records of minimum/mean temperature are more complete than those of maximum temperature and rainfall. Most stations (90%) have at least 50 years of data for each parameter.
Recording methods and instrumentation varied considerably over the period of record. The following describes the types of instruments used throughout the network, the apparatus employed to shelter these instruments, and the times at which observations were taken. Temperature and precipitation are addressed separately. Additional information regarding the history of the network is contained in publications and instruction manuals prepared by the Academy of Sciences of the Russian Empire (1892, 1893, 1894, 1896, 1897, 1898, 1900, 1902, 1908, 1912), The Nicholas Main Physical Observatory (1915), The Voyeikov Main Geophysical Observatory (1928, 1931, 1963), the Central Administration of the Unified Hydrometeorological Service of the USSR (1935, 1936, 1939, 1940), the Council of Ministers of the USSR (1946, 1954, 1958, 1962, 1969, 1985), and Gidrometeoizdat (1972).

Temperature

The types of thermometers in use at each station remained the same throughout the period of record. Minimum temperature was consistently measured with an alcohol thermometer, whereas hourly and maximum temperatures were each collected with separate mercury thermometers. When the air temperature approached the freezing point of mercury ( 38.9 C), either an alcohol thermometer, or in some cases a minimum thermometer alcohol column, was used in place of the mercury thermometer. Whether or not (much less when) the thermometers themselves were replaced at each station is not currently known.




The type of shelter or screen surrounding the thermometers varied considerably before 1930. In 1912, official instructions recommended sheltering thermometers with the Stevenson type screen (before 1912, no such guidelines existed). However, it is likely that this change was not implemented at many stations. From 1920 30, Stevenson screens were replaced with the current screens (name unknown) at all operating stations. In 1928, additional guidelines regarding the exact dimensions of the shelters and their mounting heights were issued (before 1928, no such specifications had been defined). Therefore, from 1930 on, most stations had their thermometers sheltered in roughly the same fashion.
Major changes in the time of observation occurred in 1936 and 1966. Prior to 1936, "hourly" measurements for computing daily mean temperature were taken at 0700, 1300, and 2100 Local Mean Time (LMT) (minimum and maximum thermometers were checked at one of these hours or at 0900 LMT, depending upon the year). Because of the lack of nighttime observations, daily mean temperature was probably overestimated by some location dependent amount during this period. Beginning in 1936, all thermometers (hourly, minimum, and maximum) were checked at 0100, 0700, 1300, and 1900 LMT at most stations. As a result, the bias in daily mean temperature dropped to ~0.2 C. From 1966 present, all thermometers were checked at 3 h intervals beginning at midnight Moscow winter Legal Time (MLT) (MLT being three hours later than Greenwich Mean Time). This rendered the bias in daily mean temperature insignificant.
Temperature recording methods and instrumentation
Year Recording method/instrumentation implemented
1881 Measurements for computing daily mean temperature taken at 0700, 1300, and 2100 LMT; mercury thermometer used; because of alack of nighttime observations, daily mean temperature were probably overstated.

1881 Daily minimum temperature thermometer checked at 0900 LMT; alcohol thermometer used.


1881 Daily maximum temperature thermometer checked at 0900 LMT; mercury thermometer used.
1881 No regulations regarding type of shelter surrounding thermometers.
1883 Daily minimum temperature thermometer checked at 0700 and 2100 LMT (lower value chosen); multiple measurements taken only to determine approximate time of occurrence of minimum.
1891 Daily maximum temperature thermometer checked at 1300 and 2100 LMT (higher value chosen); multiple measurements taken only to determine approximate time of occurrence of maximum.

1912 Official meteorological instructions recommended use of Stevenson screen to shelter thermometers; practice not implemented at all stations.
1920 Official meteorological instructions recommended use of current screen to shelter thermometers; practice implemented over next ten years.
1928 Official meteorological instructions specified exact size/height of screens.
1936 Measurements for computing daily mean temperature taken at 0100, 0700, 1300, and 1900 LMT (or at 0700, 1300, 1900, and 2100 LMT); bias in daily mean temperature dropped to ~0.2 C; daily maximum and minimum thermometers may or may not have been checked each hour.
1966 Measurements for all temperature variables collected at 3 hour intervals beginning at midnight MLT; bias in daily mean temperature eliminated.

Precipitation

The type of rain gauge used at each station changed at least once during the period of record. In particular, the old style gauge (type unknown) was replaced with the Tretyakov type gauge over the period 1946 60. Whether or not other gauge replacements occurred at each station is not currently known.



The type of shielding surrounding the rain gauges varied considerably over time. For example, in 1883, official instructions recommended that cross  shaped zinc strips be inserted into the gauge to prevent snow from drifting. Other shielding guidelines were issued at various times over the next half  century, up until the Tretyakov type gauge was introduced. However, whether or not (much less when) any of the shields were installed at each station is not currently known.
Changes in the time of observation occurred in 1936, 1966, and 1986. Before 1936, rainfall was measured only at 0700 LMT. From 1936 65, gauges were checked at 0700 and 1900 LMT. Beginning in 1966, the time of observation became time zone dependent (the USSR being comprised of 11 time zones). In particular, from 1966 85, readings were taken at 0300, 0900, 1500, and 2100 MLT in zone 2 (i.e., Moscow); at 0300, 0600, 1500, and 1800 MLT in zones 3 5; at 0300 and 1500 MLT in zones 6 8; at midnight, 0300, 1200, and 1500 MLT in zones 9 11; and at 2100, 0300, 0900, and 1500 MLT in zone 12 (the easternmost part of the USSR). In 1986, the 0300 and 1500 MLT observations were discontinued in all but the second time zone.
Precipitation recording methods and instrumentation
Year Recording method/instrumentation implemented
1881 Rain gauge measurements taken at 0700 LMT; snowfall converted to a liquid total by melting snow in gauge; type of gauge and shielding not standardized.
1883 Official meteorological instructions recommended that cross shaped zinc strips be inserted into the gauge to prevent snow from drifting; change probably not implemented at all stations.
1887 Official meteorological instructions recommended surrounding the gauge with the funnel shaped Nifer's shield; change probably not implemented at all stations.
1892 Official meteorological instructions recommended erecting a fence around the gauge; change probably not implemented at all stations.
1902 Official meteorological instructions recommended erecting a double fence around the gauge; change probably not implemented at all stations.
1936 Rain gauge measurements taken at 0700 and 1900 LMT; daily total rainfall obtained by summing all measurements for the calendar day.
1946 60 Old style gauge (exact type unknown) replaced with the Tretyakov type gauge.
1966 Rain gauge measurements taken at 0300, 0900, 1500, and 2100 MLT in time zone 2; at 0300, 0600, 1500, and 1800 MLT in zones 3 5; at 0300 and 1500 MLT in zones 6 8; at midnight, 0300, 1200, and 1500 MLT in zones 9 11; and at 2100, 0300, 0900, and 1500 MLT in zone 12; wetting corrections <=0.2 mm applied to each hourly measurement (Because four observations per day were collected at stations in time zones 2 5 and 9 12, four corrections were counted in the daily total; therefore, total daily corrections are higher for stations in these areas.)
1986 Rain gauge measurements at 0300 and 1500 MLT discontinued at all stations except those in time zone 2.
2. Element Names and Definitions: The data are archived in a fixed length ASCII format. The total data volume is 345 megabytes. The data are sorted using the WMO station number as the primary key followed by Year, Month and Day.
Each record is of fixed length composed of 56 characters. The record format is:
Field Width Position
WMO Station Number 5 001-005

Year 4 007-010

Month 2 012-013

Day 2 015-016

Daily Temperature Group Flag 1 019

Daily Minimum Temperature 6 021-026

Daily Minimum Temperature Flag 1 028

Daily Mean Temperature 6 030-035

Daily Mean Temperature Flag 1 037

Daily Maximum Temperature 6 039-044

Daily Maximum Temperature Flag 1 046

Daily Precipitation 5 048-051

Daily Precipitation Quality Flag 1 053

Daily Precipitation Measurement Flag1 055

1 056 (not used)
EXAMPLE OF A RECORD

(As seen from a file dump)


20674b1936b12b16bb0bb-17.7b0bb-12.0b0bbb-4.3b0bbb21b0b0?

(The symbol 'b' denotes a blank)


DUMP

POSITION CONTENTS MEANING
1-5 20674 WMO Station Number

6 b Blank

7-10 1936 Year

11 b Blank

12-13 12 Month

14 b Blank

15-16 16 Day

17-18 bb Blank

19 0 Daily Temperature Group Flag

20 b Blank

21-26 bb-17.7 Daily Minimum Temperature (-17.7 Deg C)

27 b Blank

28 0 Daily Minimum Temperature Flag

29 b Blank

30-35 bb-12.0 Daily Mean Temperature (-12.0 Deg C)

36 b Blank

37 0 Daily Mean Temperature Flag

38 b Blank

39-44 bbb-4.3 Daily Maximum Temperature (-4.3 Deg C)

45 b Blank

46 0 Daily Maximum Temperature Flag

47 b Blank

48-51 bb21 Daily Precipitation (2.1mm)

52 b Blank

53 0 Daily Precipitation Quality Flag

54 b Blank

55 0 Daily Precipitation Measurement Flag

56 ? Not Used


IWMO is an integer variable that refers to the WMO Number for this station. See table 1 for a list of the 223 WMO numbers contained in this data set along with the station’s associated name, latitude, longitude, elevation, and year when data begins.
IYEAR is an integer variable that refers to the year of the data record. Range of values is 1881-1993
IMON is an integer variable that refers to the month of the data record. Range of values is 01-12.
IDAY is an integer variable that refers to the day of the month. Range of values is 01-31.
ITFLG is a numeric variable that refers to the internal consistency of the air temperature data group flag for the day. The allowable values are 0-9 and are defined as follows:
0: if minimum (<=) mean (<=) maximum

0: if minimum (<=) maximum and mean absent

0: if minimum (<=) mean and maximum absent

0: if mean (<=) maximum and minimum absent

1: if minimum (<)maximum (<=) mean

2: if mean (<=) minimum (<) maximum

3: if mean (<=) maximum (<) minimum

4: if maximum (<) minimum (<=) mean

5: if maximum (<=) mean (<) minimum

6: if mean (<) minimum and maximum absent

7: if maximum (<) minimum and mean absent

8: if maximum (<) mean and minimum absent

9: if minimum, maximum and/or mean are absent
RMIN is a real variable that refers to the daily minimum temperature in tenths of a degree Celsius. Temperature observations were taken eight times a day from 1966 93, four times a day from 1936 65, and three times a day from 1881 1935. Daily maximum/minimum temperatures were derived from maximum/minimum thermometer measurements.
IMINF is an integer variable that refers to the quality flag assigned to the minimum temperature. The allowable values are 0, 2, and 9 and are defined as follows:
0: valid value


2: suspect value

9: rejected value or observation not made. When IMINF is 9, RMIN is assigned 9999.9.



RMEAN is a real variable that refers to the daily mean temperature in tenths of a degree Celsius. Temperature observations were taken eight times a day from 1966 93, four times a day from 1936 65, and three times a day from 1881 1935. Daily mean temperature is defined as the average of all observations for each calendar day.
IMEANF is an integer variable that refers to the quality flag assigned to the mean temperature. The allowable values are 0, 2, and 9 and are defined as follows:
0: valid value

2: suspect value

9: rejected value or observation not made. When IMEANF is 9, RMEAN is assigned 9999.9.
RMAX is a real variable that refers to the daily maximum temperature in tenths of a degree Celsius. Temperature observations were taken eight times a day from 1966 93, four times a day from 1936 65, and three times a day from 1881 1935. Daily maximum/minimum temperatures were derived from maximum/minimum thermometer measurements.
IMAXF is an integer variable that refers to the quality flag assigned to the maximum temperature. The allowable values are 0, 2, and 9 and are defined as follows:
0: valid value

2: suspect value

9: rejected value or observation not made. When IMAXF is 9, RMAX is assigned 9999.9.
RPRCP is a real variable that refers to the daily precipitation (tenths of millimeters implied decimal point). Changes in the time of observation occurred in 1936, 1966, and 1986. Before 1936, rainfall was measured only at 0700 LMT. From 1936 65, gauges were checked at 0700 and 1900 LMT. Beginning in 1966, the time of observation became time zone dependent (the USSR being comprised of 11 time zones). In particular, from 1966 85, readings were taken at 0300, 0900, 1500, and 2100 MLT in zone 2 (i.e., Moscow); at 0300, 0600, 1500, and 1800 MLT in zones 3 5; at 0300 and 1500 MLT in zones 6 8; at midnight, 0300, 1200, and 1500 MLT in zones 9 11; and at 2100, 0300, 0900, and 1500 MLT in zone 12 (the easternmost part of the USSR). In 1986, the 0300 and 1500 MLT observations were discontinued in all but the second time zone.
IPRCP1 is an integer variable that refers to the measurement flag assigned to the precipitation total. The allowable values are 0-3 and are defined as follows:
0: precipitation total is 0.1 mm or more

1: precipitation value represents a multiple day total (accumulated)

2: observations were made but there was no precipitation. RPRCP is assigned zero.

3: a small precipitation amount of less than 0.1 mm. RPRCP is assigned zero.


IPRCP2 is an integer variable that refers to the quality flag assigned to the precipitation total. The allowable values are 0-3 and are defined as follows:
0: valid value

2: suspect value

9: rejected value or observation not made. When IPRCP2 is 9, RPRCP is assigned 9999
Table 1
WMO# Station name Lat. Long. Elev. Year Data Begins

(M)

20674 OSTROV DIKSON 73.50 80.40 42.0 1936

20891 HATANGA 71.98 102.47 30.0 1928

21946 COKURDAH 70.62 147.88 0.0 1944

21982 OSTROV VRANGELJA 70.97  178.37 2.0 1926

22113 MURMANSK 68.97 33.05 57.0 1936

22217 KANDALAKSA 67.13 32.43 26.0 1912

22522 KEM' PORT 64.98 34.78 7.3 1916

22550 ARHANGEL'SK 64.58 40.50 8.0 1881

22583 KOJNAS 64.75 47.65 63.0 1912

22602 REBOLY 63.82 30.82 179.0 1910

22641 ONEGA 63.90 38.12 11.0 1936

22802 SORTOVALA 61.72 30.72 17.0 1945

22820 PETROZAVODSK 61.82 34.27 110.0 1936

22837 VYTEGRA 61.02 36.45 55.0 1881

22887 KOTLAS 61.23 46.63 56.0 1936

23146 MYS KAMENNYJ 68.47 73.60 2.0 1950

23205 NAR'JAN MAR 67.65 53.02 5.0 1926

23219 HOSEDA HARD 67.08 59.38 82.0 1936

23405 UST' CIL'MA 65.45 52.17 72.0 1892

23418 PECORA 65.12 57.10 54.5 1943

23472 TURUHANSK 65.78 87.95 37.0 1960

23631 BEREZOVO 63.93 65.05 27.0 1936

23711 TROICKO PECERSKOE 62.70 56.20 135.0 1888

23724 NJAKSIMVOL' 62.43 60.87 50.0 1936

23804 SYKTYVKAR 61.67 50.85 96.0 1888

23849 SURGUT 61.25 73.50 44.0 1884

23884 BOR 61.60 90.00 62.0 1936

23891 BAJKIT 61.67 96.37 256.0 1936

23921 IVDEL' 60.68 60.43 93.0 1934

23933 HANTY MANSIJSK 60.97 69.07 45.0 1892

23955 ALEKSANDROVSKOE 60.43 77.87 47.0 1936

24125 OLENEK 68.50 112.43 216.5 1936

24266 VERHOJANSK 67.55 133.38 136.0 1885

24343 ZIGANSK 66.77 123.40 88.0 1936

24507 TURA 64.17 100.07 188.0 1928

24641 VILJUJSK 63.77 121.62 110.8 1898

24688 OJMJAKON 63.27 143.15 740.0 1943

24738 SUNTAR 62.15 117.65 131.0 1936

24817 ERBOGACEN 61.27 108.02 284.0 1936

24908 VANAVARA 60.33 102.27 259.0 1932

24944 OLEKMINSK 60.40 120.42 223.0 1882

24951 ISIT' 60.82 125.32 117.0 1936

24959 JAKUTSK 62.08 129.75 98.5 1888

24966 UST' MAJA 60.38 134.45 169.0 1897

25173 MYS SMIDTA 68.92  179.48 3.3 1936

25551 MARKOVO 64.68 170.42 25.0 1894

25563 ANADYR' 64.78 177.57 64.0 1898

25594 BUHTA PROVIDENJA 64.43  173.23 9.0 1936

25703 SEJMCAN 62.92 152.42 206.0 1936

25744 KAMENSKOE 62.48 166.22 33.0 1950

25913 MAGADAN 59.58 150.78 115.0 1936

25954 KORF 60.35 166.00 2.0 1929

26038 TALLIN 59.42 24.80 41.0 1936

26063 LENINGRAD TOWN/VILLE 59.97 30.30 4.0 1881

26188 VEREB'E 58.68 32.70 116.0 1936

26231 PJARNU 58.38 24.50 1.0 1936

26258 PSKOV 57.83 28.35 42.0 1936

26406 LIEPAJA 56.55 21.02 4.0 1881

26422 RIGA 56.97 24.07 7.0 1943

26477 VELIKIE LUKI 56.38 30.60 98.0 1881

26629 KAUNAS 54.88 23.88 76.0 1922

26702 KALININGRAD 54.70 20.62 20.0 1947

26730 VIL'NJUS 54.63 25.28 162.0 1881

26781 SMOLENSK 54.75 32.07 236.0 1944

26850 MINSK 53.87 27.53 222.0 1891

27037 VOLOGDA 59.28 39.87 125.0 1938

27196 KIROV 58.65 49.62 165.0 1881

27333 KOSTROMA 57.73 40.95 137.0 1925

27553 GOR'KIJ 56.22 43.82 161.0 1881

27595 KAZAN' 55.78 49.18 116.0 1881

27612 MOSKVA 55.75 37.57 147.0 1948

27648 ELAT'MA 54.95 41.77 132.0 1886

27823 PAVELEC 53.78 39.25 209.0 1936

27947 TAMBOV 52.73 41.47 139.0 1936

28064 LEUSI 59.62 65.78 72.8 1936

28138 BISER 58.52 58.85 463.0 1888

28225 PERM 58.02 56.30 169.0 1882

28275 TOBOL'SK 58.15 68.18 48.5 1884

28411 IZEVSK 56.82 53.27 155.0 1958

28434 KRASNOUFIMSK 56.62 57.75 20.6 1936

28440 SVERDLOVSK 56.80 60.63 282.0 1881

28493 TARA 56.90 74.38 73.0 1936

28661 KURGAN 55.47 65.40 70.0 1893

28679 PETROPAVLOVSK 54.83 69.15 134.0 1890

28698 OMSK 54.93 73.40 121.0 1916

28722 UFA 54.75 56.00 104.0 1900

28900 KUJBYSEV BEZENCUK 53.25 50.45 137.0 1936

28952 KUSTANAJ 53.22 63.62 169.0 1902

29231 KOLPASEV 58.30 82.90 80.0 1936

29263 ENISEJSK 58.45 92.15 77.0 1884

29282 BOGUCANY 58.42 97.40 134.0 1930

29430 TOMSK 56.43 84.97 137.0 1890

29574 KRASNOJARSK 56.00 92.88 274.0 1914

29612 BARABINSK 55.37 78.40 120.0 1900

29698 NIZNE UDINSK 54.88 99.03 410.0 1966

29807 IRTYSSK 53.35 75.45 93.0 1936

29838 BARNAUL 53.33 83.70 153.0 1959

29866 MINUSINSK 53.70 91.70 251.0 1910

30054 VITIM 59.45 112.58 186.3 1928

30230 KIRENSK 57.77 108.12 256.0 1892

30253 BODAJBO 57.85 114.20 278.0 1936

30372 CARA 56.92 118.37 708.0 1938

30393 CUL'MAN 56.83 124.87 843.9 1936

30521 ZIGALOVO 54.80 105.17 426.0 1937

30555 TROICKIJ PRIISK 54.62 113.13 1315.0 1938

30636 BARGUZIN 53.62 109.63 488.0 1898

30673 MOGOCA 53.73 119.78 624.0 1910

30692 SKOVORODINO 54.00 123.97 397.5 1912

30710 IRKUTSK 52.27 104.35 467.0 1882

30758 CITA 52.02 113.33 471.0 1890

30777 SRETENSK 52.27 117.70 528.0 1936

30823 ULAN UDE 51.80 107.43 514.0 1886

30925 KJAHTA 50.37 106.45 791.0 1895

30949 KYRA 49.57 111.97 907.0 1927

30965 BORZJA 50.38 116.52 675.0 1901

31004 ALDAN 58.62 125.37 678.0 1937

31088 OHOTSK 59.37 143.20 5.0 1891

31168 AJAN 56.45 138.15 7.0 1931

31253 BOMNAK 54.72 128.93 357.0 1909

31329 EKIMCAN 53.07 132.93 540.0 1914

31369 NIKOLAEVSK NA AMURE 53.15 140.70 46.0 1881

31388 NORSK 52.35 129.92 207.0 1925

31416 IM POLINY OSIPENKO 52.42 136.50 71.0 1936

31510 BLAGOVESCENSK 50.27 127.50 130.0 1881

31532 CEKUNDA 50.82 132.17 271.0 1936

31594 ARHARA 49.42 130.08 133.0 1936

31707 EKATERINO NIKOL'SKOE 47.73 130.97 72.0 1966

31735 HABAROVSK 48.52 135.17 88.0 1952

31829 MYS ZOLOTOJ 47.32 138.98 27.0 1936

31873 DAL'NERECENSK 45.87 133.73 97.0 1939

31909 TERNEJ 45.03 136.67 51.0 1923

31915 POGRANICNYJ 44.40 131.38 217.0 1902

31960 VLADIVOSTOK 43.12 131.90 183.0 1914

32061 ALEKSANDROVSK

 SAHALINSKIJ 50.90 142.17 30.0 1881

32098 PORONAJSK 49.22 143.10 7.0 1908

32165 JUZNO-KURULUSK 44.02 145.82 44.0 1947

32389 KLJUCI 56.32 160.83 28.0 1914

32411 ICA 55.70 155.63 10.0 1936

32540 PETROPAVLOVSK

 KAMCATSKIJ 52.97 158.75  999.9 1894

32564 OKTIABR'SKAYA 52.67 156.23 6.0 1914

33008 BREST 52.12 23.68 141.0 1902

33038 VASILEVICI 52.25 29.83 139.0 1881

33345 KIEV 50.40 30.45 167.0 1881

33377 LUBNY 50.02 33.00 156.0 1936

33393 L'VOV 49.82 23.95 326.0 1936

33562 VINNICA 49.23 28.47 281.0 1936

33631 UZGOROD 48.63 22.27 115.0 1946

33658 CERNOVCY 48.27 25.97 239.0 1941

33815 KISINEV 47.02 28.87 173.0 1886

33837 ODESSA 46.48 30.63 42.0 1894

33889 IZMAIL 45.37 28.87 28.0 1886

33910 GENICESK 46.17 34.82 14.0 1883

33915 ASKANIJA NOVA 46.45 33.88 28.0 1910

33946 SIMFEROPOL' 45.02 33.98 204.0 1955

33976 FEODOSIJA 45.03 35.38 22.0 1881

33983 KERC' 45.37 36.43 32.0 1936

34009 KURSK 51.65 36.18 246.0 1891

34122 VORONEZ 51.70 39.17 147.0 1918

34139 KAMENNAJA STEP' 51.05 40.70 193.0 1893

34163 OKTJABR'SKIJ GORODOK 51.63 45.45 202.0 1881

34172 SARATOV 51.57 46.03 126.0 1936

34300 HAR'KOV 49.93 36.28 147.0 1936

34391 ALEKSANDROV GAJ 50.15 48.55 23.0 1936

34524 DEBAL'CEVO 48.35 38.43 334.0 1936

34646 VOLGODONSK 47.73 42.25 64.0 1952

34731 ROSTOV NA DONU 47.25 39.82 66.0 1886

34747 CELINA 46.55 41.05 111.0 1936

34824 PRIMORSKO AHTARSK 46.03 38.15 3.0 1959

34861 ELISTA 46.32 44.30 151.0 1927

34880 ASTRAHAN' 46.27 48.03  22.0 1881

35078 ATBASAR 51.82 68.37 303.0 1936

35108 URAL'SK 51.25 51.40 36.0 1900

35121 ORENBURG 51.75 55.10 115.0 1886

35133 ADAMOVKA 51.52 59.95 285.0 1936

35188 CELINOGRAD 51.13 71.37 347.0 1881

35229 AKTJUBINSK 50.28 57.15 219.0 1904

35358 TURGAJ 49.63 63.50 124.0 1900

35394 KARAGANDA 49.80 73.13 550.0 1936

35406 KALMYKOVO 49.05 51.87 1.0 1925

35416 UIL 49.07 54.68 88.0 1925

35542 IRGIZ 48.62 61.27 114.0 1936

35576 KZYL ZAR 48.30 69.65 488.0 1926

35700 GUR'EV 47.02 51.85  24.0 1881

35746 ARAL'SKOE MORE 46.78 61.67 62.0 1905

35796 BALHAS 46.90 75.00 347.0 1936

36034 RUBCOVSK 51.50 81.22 216.0 1936

36177 SEMIPALATINSK 50.35 80.25 195.0 1901

36665 ZAJSAN 47.47 84.92 604.0 1936

36729 UC ARAL 46.17 80.93 397.0 1937

36859 PANFILOV 44.17 80.07 641.0 1917

36870 ALMA ATA 43.23 76.93 847.0 1915

36974 NARYN 41.43 76.00 2039.0 1913

37031 ARMAVIR 44.98 41.12 158.0 1936

37050 PJATIGORSK 44.05 43.03 531.0 1934

37099 SOCI 43.58 39.72 57.0 1881

37235 GROZNYJ 43.35 45.68 123.0 1938

37385 SAMTREDIA 42.18 42.37 28.0 1936

37472 MAHACKALA 43.02 47.43  21.0 1882

37549 TBILISI 41.68 44.95 427.0 1881

37686 LENINAKAN 40.78 43.83 1523.0 1895

37735 KIROVABAD 40.72 46.42 308.0 1882

37789 EREVAN 40.13 44.47 888.0 1885

38198 TURKESTAN 43.27 68.22 206.0 1882

38262 CIMBAJ 42.95 59.82 64.7 1937

38353 FRUNZE 42.83 74.58 756.0 1936

38413 TAMDY 41.73 64.62 236.0 1932

38457 TASKENT 41.27 69.27 477.0 1881

38507 KRASNOVODSK 40.03 52.98 89.0 1936

38599 LENINABAD 40.22 69.73 425.0 1936

38618 FERGANA 40.37 71.75 577.8 1881

38687 CARDZOU 39.08 63.60 188.0 1894

38696 SAMARKAND 39.57 66.95 725.0 1936

38750 GASAN KULI 37.47 53.97  24.0 1926

38763 KIZYL ARVAT 38.98 56.28 97.0 1883

38836 DUSANBE 38.58 68.78 796.0 1926

38880 ASHABAD 37.97 58.33 227.0 1937

38895 BAJRAM ALI 37.60 62.18 240.0 1889

38927 TERMEZ 37.23 67.27 309.0 1927

38933 KURGAN TJUBE 37.82 68.78 427.0 1936

38954 HOROG 37.50 71.50 2077.0 1898

38974 SERAHS 36.53 61.22 275.0 1936

38987 KUSKA 35.28 62.35 625.0 1904
3. Start Date: 18819999. Most stations begin in 1936
4. Stop Date: 19939999
5. Coverage: the former USSR
a. Southernmost Latitude: 35 Degrees 00 Min. N Latitude

b. Northernmost Latitude: 74 Degrees 00 Min. N Latitude

c. Westernmost Longitude: 20 Degrees 00 Min. E Longitude

d. Easternmost Longitude: 173 Degrees 00 Min. W Longitude


6. How to Order Data:
Ask NCDC’s Climate Services about the cost of obtaining this data set.

Phone: 828-271-4800

FAX: 828-271-4876

E-mail: NCDC.Orders@noaa.gov


7. Archiving Data Center:
National Climatic Data Center

Federal Building

151 Patton Avenue

Asheville, NC 28801-5001

Phone: (828) 271-4800.
8. Technical Contact:
National Climatic Data Center

Federal Building

151 Patton Avenue

Asheville, NC 28801-5001



Phone: (828) 271-4800.
9. Known Uncorrected Problems: An extensive quality control of these data was performed by the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)in 1993 and some problems were found. CDIAC examined the actual daily data values for reasonableness. In particular, minimum, mean, and maximum temperature on each day were compared to verify that the minimum was less than or equal to the mean and that the mean was less than or equal to the maximum. For 4544 days scattered more than 220 stations, this relationship was violated. Extreme value checks were applied to identify negative rainfall totals and temperatures that exceeded known world record values (i.e., temperatures below  73 C or above 58 C). As a result, 230 minimum and 13 maximum temperature observations were found. Precipitation totals above 500 mm were also checked for reasonableness, though none were flagged as problematic.
In addition, CDIAC found 13 stations that had extensive data problems and should be used with caution. These are listed below:
WMO# 24266 From 1895 1920, there are few maximum temperature values greater than  36 C; thereafter, numerous values are greater than  36 C.
WMO# 24641 From 1900 1930, there are few maximum temperature values greater than  36 C; thereafter, numerous values are greater than  36 C.
WMO# 24944 From 1900 1930, there are few maximum temperature values greater than  36 C; thereafter, numerous values are greater than  36 C.
WMO# 24959 From 1888 1927, there are few maximum temperature values greater than  36 C; thereafter, numerous values are greater than  36 C.
WMO# 24966 From 1897 1901, there are few mean temperature values less than  40 C; thereafter, numerous values are less than  40 C.
WMO# 25551 From 1894 1898, there are few minimum, mean, and maximum temperature values less than  40 C; thereafter, numerous values are less than  40 C.
WMO# 26406 From 1881 1886, numerous precipitation totals are equal to 0; thereafter, far fewer values are equal to 0.
WMO# 30823 In 1896, several precipitation totals are anomalously large.
WMO# 31510 In 1928, several minimum temperature values are anomalously high.
WMO# 36177 From 1918 1921, many precipitation totals are only recorded to the nearest millimeter.
WMO# 37472 From 1898 1911, many minimum temperatures are only recorded to the nearest degree Celsius.
WMO# 38895 In 1889, many maximum temperature values are anomalously high.
WMO# 38954 In 1910, several precipitation totals are anomalously large.
10. Quality Statement: An extensive quality control of these data was performed by Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center in 1993 and some problems were found. They are described in topic 16 of this document. In addition, the Russian data center from which these data were received conducted extensive manual and automated quality assurance assessments prior to these data being exchanged with the National Climatic Data Center.
11. Essential Companion Datasets: A WMO station identifier list is required in order to determine metadata (name, location, elevation, etc.) on each WMO station identifier number (positions 1-5 in the digital data file). A cross reference list of the WMO numbers listed in this data set is also provided in this document (table 1).
12. References:
Razuvaev, V.N., E.G. Apasova, R.A. Martuganov, R.S. Vose, and P.M. Steurer, 1993: Daily Temperature and Precipitation Data for 223 USSR Stations. ORNL/CDIAC NDP-040. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, 127 pp.

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