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Cctld foreign registration comparison study


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ccTLD FOREIGN REGISTRATION COMPARISON STUDY
Compiled by Natalie Ledra, of The Muscovitch Law Firm / Dnattorney.com, on August 27, 2010.


Domain Name Registration Requirements

Country

Organization that manages domain names

Domain Name Suffix

Requirements

Foreign Registration

Canada

CIRA


.ca

According to CIRA only the following can register the domain name suffix .ca.
1. Canadian Citizens

2. Canadian Permanent Residents

  1. Canadian or Provincial Legal Representatives

4. Canadian or Provincial Corporations

5. Canadian or Provincial Partnerships

6. Canadian or Provincial Educational Institutions

7. The Canadian or Provincial Government

8. Canadian or Provincial Trusts

9. Canadian or Provincial Associations

10. Canadian or Provincial Trade Unions

11. Canadian or Provincial Political Parties

12. Canadian or Provincial Libraries, Archives or Museums

13. Canadian or Provincial Hospitals

14. Canadian or Provincial Indian Bands or Aboriginal Peoples

15. Trademarks registered in Canada

16. Canadian or Provincial Official Marks registered in Canada
For more information on any of the categories listed above please see:

http://www.cira.ca/assets/Documents/Legal/Registrants/CPR.pdf



Only companies that fulfill the Canadian Presence Requirements are qualified for registration. See left panel for further details on which categories qualify.

United States

NEUSTAR

.us

1. A natural person

(i) Who is a United States citizen,

(ii) Who is a permanent resident of the

United States of America or any of its possessions or territories, or



(iii) Whose primary place of domicile is in the United States of America or any of its possessions
2. A United States entity or organization that is
(i) incorporated within one of the fifty (50) U.S. states, the District of Columbia, or any of the United States possessions or territories, or

(ii) organized or otherwise constituted under the laws of a state of the United States of America, the District of Columbia or any of its possessions or territories (including a federal, state, or local government of the United States or a political subdivision thereof, and non-commercial organizations based in the United States) or
3. A foreign entity or organization that has a bona fide presence in the United States of America or any of its possessions or territories, with bona fide presence meaning


  1. Regularly performs activities within the United States related to the purposes for which the entity or organization is constituted (e.g., selling goods or providing services to customers, conducting regular training activities, attending conferences), provided such activities are not conducted solely or primarily to permit it to register for a usTLD domain name;

  2. Maintains an office or other facility in the United States for a business, non-commercial, educational, or governmental purpose and not solely or primarily to permit it to register for a usTLD domain name; or

  3. Derives a material portion of its revenues or net income from sales to purchasers located in the United States.


For more information see:

http://neustar.us/faqs/index.html#who_can_register

Foreign corporations, individuals or trademark owners may register .us if they have a bona fide presence in the United States this means that an organization or person may register a domain name with the suffix .us if they do so in good faith.

United Kingdom



NOMINET

.co.uk

Everyone within the European Economic Area is eligible to register a .co.uk domain name.


For more information see:

http://www.nominet.org.uk

Anyone within the European Economic Area may register co.uk. However, corporations and trademark owners around the world are also eligible to register the domain name provided that they have a VAT number; a VAT number is 15 digit registration number and is used for tax purposes this number allows corporations to conduct business in countries that require registration.



Germany


DENIC

.de

In order to register a .de domain name a corporations or trademark holders must have an administrative contact residing in Germany, they must also have a VAT number.
For more information see:

http://www.denic.de/en/homepage.html?cHash=3486f26050

.de may be registered to individuals and corporations outside of Germany provided they have an administrative contact residing within Germany and has a postal address to serve documents.

The administrative contact must also be the person formally authorized by the domain holder to receive service of official or court documents.



France

AFNIC

.fr

As of March 10, 2010 those permitted to register a .fr domain name are as follows:
1. Corporate entities with a registered office or branch in France, whose details can be verified in such electronic databases as Infogreffe (and its derivatives), RNCS, the SIRENE directory and BODACC.
2. The State, local authorities and their establishments.
3. Trademark Holders who are adult individuals or corporate entities owning a trademark registered with France's National Institute of Industrial Property (INPI) or a registered EU or international trademark specifically stating France, whose details can be verified in any electronic trademark database.
4. Individuals who are natural persons of full legal age living in France or have French citizenship but reside outside of France.
For more information see:

http://www.afnic.fr


.fr may be registered by corporations outside of France provided they have registered office within France and may be verified on the French electronic database. It also states that adults living in France or have French citizenship may register .fr and that individuals or corporations owning a trademark registered with the France’s Institution of Industrial Property or the European Union or an international trademark stating France, who can be identified in the electronic database may register .fr name.
This means that foreign individuals, corporations or trademark holders may register .fr provided they have a registered office in France, are registered with the INPI or have a trademark that can be verified in France’s electronic database or have French citizenship.

Italy


Registro.it

it

An .it domain name suffix can be registered by citizens that are of age, self employed people, organizations, belong to one of 27 members of the European Union.
For more information see:

http://www.nic.it


Companies, individuals and trademark owners outside the Italy must have a presence within the European Union and have a VAT number.
Letter that must be submitted to request a domain name by those who are not natural persons: http://www.nic.it/documents/asynchronous-template/lar-other.pdf/at_download/file

China

CNNIC

.cn

China’s policy on who is not permitted to register .cn include:

  1. Those that are against the basic principles prescribed in the Constitution;




  1. Those jeopardize national security, leak state secrets, intend to overturn  the government, or disrupt state integrity;




  1. Those harm national honour and national interests;




  1. Those instigate hostility or discrimination between different nationalities, or disrupt the national solidarity;




  1. Those violate the state religion policies or propagate cult and feudal superstition;




  1. Those spread rumours, disturb public order or disrupt social stability;




  1. Those spread pornography, obscenity, gambling, violence, homicide, terror or instigate crimes;




  1. Those insult, libel against others and infringe other people's legal rights and interests; or




  1. Other contents prohibited in laws, rules and administrative regulations.


According to the Domain Name Wire:

    1. As of January 1st, 2010, China domestic registrants are no longer allowed to register a .cn domain via an overseas registrar.


2. If any registrant’s business license or personal ID are not in Chinese or English, he/she has to file in a notarized English translation of these documents for domain name application starting January 15th, 2010, 9:00 AM (Beijing Time).

For more information see: http://cnnic.cn/en/index/index.htm


Overseas registration of .cn is not permitted.

Australia

AUDA

.com.au

Those that can register .com.au must be:


  1. an Australian registered company

  2. trading under a registered business name in an Australian state or territory

  3. A foreign company license to trade in Australia

  4. An Australian partnership and sole trader

  5. Be an owner or applicant of the Australian registered trade mark

  6. An association incorporated in any Australian state or territory

  7. An Australian commercial statutory body


For more information see:

http://www.auda.org.au/policy/current-policies/

The domain name suffix .com.au is a domain name suffix used for commercial purposes. Foreign corporations and trademark owners may register .com.au provided they are involved in trade with Australia.

India

INRegistry

.in

Registration is available to all parties worldwide however the registry has the authority to deny or suspend a registration if it conflicts with sovereign national interests or public order.
For more information see:

http://www.inregistry.in/

The domain name suffix .in is available for corporations, individuals and trademark owners around the world.

European Union

EURid

.eu

Those that can register .eu must be a natural person’s or resident of the European community, organization’s established within the European community, undertakings that have a registered office, central administration, or principle place of business within the European Union.
For more information see:

http://www.eurid.eu/en/faq#who


The domain name suffix .eu is limited to individuals living in the European Union and organizations or corporations who have a registered office, central administration or principal place of business within the European community.


Brazil

Registro.br

com.br

Registration of a com.br domain name suffix is permitted to any legal entities established in Brazil such as individuals or institutions that have a contract in Brazil. However individuals, trademark holders and corporations located outside of Brazil may also register .com.br if,
1. There is a power of attorney appointed in the country of origin of the corporation in which power is delegated to the attorney for domain registration, cancellation and other such duties.
2. A statement of business of the corporation, which requires the name, address, telephone number, social object, activities performed, and the name and title of legal representatives.
3. A declaration of commitment of the company, clear declarations of a company’s activities within Brazil in the following 12 months.
4. A consular legalization of attorney, a declaration of commercial activity and a declaration of commitment to be held at the consulate of Brazil in the home country.
5. A certified translation of the proxy, a declaration of commercial activity and declaration of commitment.
6. A copy of the CPNJ or CPF
7. The office of the attorney setting ID which connects the corporation.
For more information see:

http://www.registro.br

Foreign individuals, corporations, and trademark holders may register a com.br domain name if they have a representative in Brazil who has a CPF or CNPJ number, this is a number attributed to the Brazil revenue agency for tax purposes, the corporation must also sign a declaration stating that they will begin business and outline their business activities in Brazil for the following 12 months, the corporation must also have a power of attorney with an authorized signature that gives the representative the right to register the domain name suffix .com.br.



Netherlands

SIDN

.nl

Registration of a .nl is permitted to:


  1. Anyone, living or based anywhere in the world may apply through a registrar to SIDN to register a .nl domain name. SIDN may attach additional conditions to legal and/or natural persons based outside the European Union.


For more information see:

https://www.sidn.nl/fileadmin/docs/PDF-files_UK/General%20Terms%20and%20Conditions%20for%20.nl%20Registrants.pdf

Anyone around the world is permitted to register a .nl domain name.


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