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America: Past and Present, 9e (Divine et al.) Chapter 10 The Triumph of White Men's Democracy

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America: Past and Present, 9e (Divine et al.)

Chapter 10 The Triumph of White Men's Democracy
10.1 Multiple-Choice Questions
1) The popular hero of the 1830s was

A) the self-made man.

B) an "Indian fighter."

C) the privileged aristocrat.

D) the working man.

E) the American cowboy.

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 236 [Factual]

2) The European observer, Alexis de Tocqueville, believed the most evident feature of democracy in America was

A) the American contribution.

B) the local self-government.

C) the participation of women in government.

D) the American election process.

E) the equality of former slaves.

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 255 [Factual]

3) Which of the following individuals is incorrectly matched with his art form?

A) Walt Whitman–poetry

B) Nathaniel Hawthorne–novels

C) Herman Melville–novels

D) Oliver Wendell Holmes–painting

E) George Caleb Bingham–painting

Answer: D

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 239 [Factual]

4) Which one of the following was not a prominent American writer of the pre-Civil War era?

A) Herman Melville

B) Nicholas Biddle

C) Nathaniel Hawthorne

D) Edgar Allan Poe

E) Walt Whitman

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 249 [Factual]

5) The most obvious indicator of the supremacy of democracy in the United States was

A) the high percentages of people who voted.

B) the widespread use of the "spoils system."

C) the absence of any kind of social or economic classes.

D) the development of universal manhood suffrage.

E) the increase in the number of appointed officials.

Answer: D

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 239 [Factual]

6) By the 1830s, which of the following groups was NOT denied suffrage?

A) blacks

B) white males

C) Native Americans

D) women

E) indentured servants

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 239 [Factual]

7) An important figure in the development of stable political parties in the United States was

A) John Quincy Adams.

B) Martin Van Buren.

C) Robert Fulton.

D) John C. Calhoun.

E) Nicholas Biddle.

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 239 [Factual]

8) Martin Van Buren regarded a two-party system as essential to democratic government because

A) it provided a check on the temptation to abuse power.

B) he believed governments could not operate effectively without parties.

C) they were traditional in democracies.

D) he saw two parties as a way to increase his personal power.

E) three or more parties would cause too much voter confusion.

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 240 [Factual]

9) In the 1820s, a two-party system was fostered by

A) changes in the Constitution regarding the party system.

B) an increasing concern about foreign policy issues.

C) changes in the method of nominating and electing the president.

D) the burgeoning population of the trans-Appalachian West.

E) married women gaining the right to vote.

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 240 [Factual]

10) Between 1824 and 1840, voter participation in elections

A) changed little.

B) declined somewhat.

C) increased slightly.

D) increased dramatically.

E) declined precipitously.

Answer: D

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 240 [Factual]

11) The major issues dominating politics in the 1820s and 1830s were

A) constitutional.

B) sectional.

C) social.

D) economic.

E) foreign affairs.

Answer: D

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 240 [Factual]

12) Which of the following was NOT a major concern of the trade unions?

A) improved public education

B) a ten-hour work day

C) hard money currency

D) abolition of imprisonment for debt

E) a federally mandated minimum wage

Answer: E

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 241 [Factual]

13) The radical position in American society in the 1820s was best represented by

A) the Democrats.

B) the Jacksonians.

C) the Whigs.

D) immigrants.

E) the trade unions.

Answer: E

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 241 [Factual]

14) In the election of 1824, Andrew Jackson

A) was initially viewed as the strongest candidate.

B) received only limited support from slaveholding states.

C) could claim fame as a military hero.

D) found great support in the North.

E) won a majority of electoral votes.

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 242 [Factual]

15) John Quincy Adams's victory in 1824 was aided by

A) Martin Van Buren.

B) John C. Calhoun.

C) Henry Clay.

D) William Crawford.

E) Nicholas Biddle.

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 242 [Factual]

16) Which of the following men were true political and philosophical allies in the 1820s?

A) John Quincy Adams and Henry Clay

B) Henry Clay and Andrew Jackson

C) Andrew Jackson and John Quincy Adams

D) Andrew Jackson and John C. Calhoun

E) John Quincy Adams and Andrew Jackson

Answer: A

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 242 [Factual]

17) As president, John Quincy Adams

A) had a difficult time.

B) was a master strategist.

C) bowed to public opinion.

D) followed the principles of states' rights.

E) was even more popular than George Washington.

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 242 [Factual]

18) The main issue of John Quincy Adams's presidency was

A) forced relocation of Native Americans.

B) internal improvements.

C) foreign affairs.

D) tariffs.

E) the idea of a continental railroad.

Answer: D

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 242 [Factual]

19) In which of the following elections did the "tariff of abominations" become a major campaign issue?

A) 1824

B) 1828

C) 1832

D) 1836

E) 1840

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 242 [Factual]

20) In the election campaign of 1828,

A) traditional campaigning methods were used.

B) great attention was paid to techniques for reaching the masses.

C) party leaders essentially decided the outcome.

D) Adams was portrayed as a man of the people.

E) the foundation was laid for the formation of the Republican Party.

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 242 [Factual]

21) American culture in the Jacksonian period

A) did not reflect the development of a more democratic society.

B) was based in support of elitism and privileges.

C) was primarily the concern of the upper class.

D) accurately reflected the rise of the democratic spirit.

E) reached an all-time low in production.

Answer: D

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 237-238 [Conceptual]

22) ________ came to symbolize the triumph of democracy.

A) Henry Clay

B) John C. Calhoun

C) Daniel Webster

D) Martin Van Buren

E) Andrew Jackson

Answer: E

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 241 [Factual]

23) With respect to the "spoils system," Jackson

A) refused to use this traditional practice.

B) differed in its use from earlier presidents.

C) was the first president to use it.

D) believed it was a legitimate application of democracy.

E) was convinced only a "chosen few" could qualify for public duty.

Answer: D

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 243 [Factual]

24) In 1829, the social scandal in Washington, D.C. that resulted in the shuffling of Andrew Jackson's cabinet involved

A) Susan B. Anthony.

B) Amanda Calhoun.

C) Peggy Eaton.

D) Abigail Adams.

E) Mother Jones.

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 243 [Factual]

25) Andrew Jackson's attitude toward Native Americans was that

A) they should be removed to areas beyond white expansion.

B) they should be allowed to remain on their tribal lands.

C) they should be assimilated into white society.

D) they should be treated as equals to the white man.

E) they should be exterminated.

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 246 [Factual]

26) The Trail of Tears refers to

A) the destruction of the national bank.

B) passage of the "tariff of abominations."

C) the forced relocation of the Cherokees to Oklahoma.

D) the nullification controversy.

E) the Oregon Trail and westward expansion.

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 246 [Factual]

27) ________ denied states the right to take Native American tribal lands.

A) McCulloch v. Maryland

B) Southern legislatures

C) Worcester v. Georgia

D) Fletcher v. Peck

E) Wallace v. Tennessee

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 246 [Factual]

28) In the 1830s and 1840s, the main advocate of states' rights was

A) Daniel Webster.

B) Henry Clay.

C) John C. Calhoun.

D) Martin Van Buren.

E) Andrew Jackson.

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 247 [Factual]

29) The leader of South Carolina's reaction to the tariff of 1828 was

A) John C. Calhoun.

B) Henry Clay.

C) Daniel Webster.

D) Benjamin Rush.

E) Robert Caldwell.

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 247 [Factual]

30) During the nullification controversy, the political and personal problems between Andrew Jackson and ________ became highly visible.

A) the vice president

B) the secretary of state

C) the speaker of the House

D) the governor of South Carolina

E) the president pro tem of the Senate

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 247 [Factual]

31) South Carolinians protested the tariff of 1828 because

A) they feared its effect on the price of cotton.

B) they saw it as an unfair "northern" law.

C) they thought it threatened the institution of slavery.

D) of their dislike of Andrew Jackson.

E) tariffs determined the prices that southern agriculturalists paid for manufactured goods.

Answer: E

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 247 [Factual]

32) The nullification crisis was strongly influenced by

A) foreign manufacturing interests.

B) the political maneuvers of the National Republicans.

C) the demands of other southern states.

D) the personal feud between Jackson and Calhoun.

E) the relocation of Native Americans.

Answer: D

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 247 [Factual]

33) In 1832, South Carolina nullified

A) the Missouri Compromise.

B) the Indian Removal Act.

C) the renewal of the charter of the Bank of the United States.

D) the federal tariff.

E) the fugitive slave law.

Answer: D

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 248 [Factual]

34) President Jackson was

A) in sympathy with the abolitionists.

B) an advocate of extreme state sovereignty.

C) a southerner and a slaveholder.

D) unable to prevent Congress from overriding his decisions.

E) a master politician with the ability to turn enemies into allies.

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 249 [Factual]

35) From Jackson's response to the nullification crisis, one can conclude that he

A) was a strong supporter of states' rights.

B) believed in the limited use of federal power, but also that states were not truly sovereign.

C) supported the unlimited use of federal power.

D) supported higher tariffs.

E) supported lower tariffs.

Answer: B

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 248 [Factual]

36) The nullification crisis of the early 1830s

A) had little impact outside South Carolina.

B) was of little significance for the future of the United States.

C) revealed the strength of the Constitution.

D) was an early indication of dangerous future divisions.

E) demonstrated the inherent solidarity of the Union.

Answer: D

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 249 [Factual]

37) Who was the president of the national bank and Andrew Jackson's chief opponent in the "bank war"?

A) Henry Clay

B) John C. Calhoun

C) Francis B. Blair

D) Nicholas Biddle

E) John Jacob Astor

Answer: D

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 249 [Factual]

38) A major criticism of the national bank was that

A) it concentrated too much power in the hands of the privileged.

B) it failed completely to meet its financial responsibilities.

C) it was a tool of the Democratic Party.

D) it was mismanaged by Nicholas Biddle.

E) money went in, then invariably disappeared.

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 250 [Factual]

39) The strategic blunder made by Nicholas Biddle was

A) his decision to confide in Henry Clay.

B) his decision to seek the bank's charter renewal four years early.

C) his decision to give bank loans to congressmen.

D) his failure to listen to the advice of Henry Clay.

E) his advocacy of large loans to immigrants.

Answer: B

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 250 [Factual]

40) The major significance of Jackson's national bank veto message was that it

A) was the first veto made by Jackson.

B) failed to explain the constitutional reasons for his decision.

C) was the first one that went beyond strictly constitutional arguments.

D) decisively ended the life of the national bank.

E) was the first recorded presidential veto.

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 250 [Factual]

41) Andrew Jackson's group of close friends and unofficial advisers were known as the

A) Spoils System.

B) Kitchen Cabinet.

C) Whig Party.

D) Gas-House Gang.

E) Logrollers.

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 250 [Factual]

42) Andrew Jackson killed the national bank

A) by withdrawing federal deposits from it.

B) through further legislation.

C) through the actions of the Supreme Court.

D) by letting it expire in 1836.

E) by accusing Nicholas Biddle of treasonous acts.

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 250-251 [Factual]

43) The Whig Party

A) generally supported Jackson's presidency.

B) grew from a coalition of Jackson's opponents.

C) refused the support of other, smaller parties.

D) represented political ideas unique to the American experience.

E) supported abolition.

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 249, 250 [Factual]

1840 Louisiana Campaign Ad

(Library of Congress)

44) Whig political symbols of the log cabin and a barrel of hard cider satirized in this Democratic anti-Whig campaign poster were intended to convey which of the following images?

A) belief in the concept of popular sovereignty

B) Whig support for slavery and cotton agriculture

C) proof of the humble origins of Whig candidates from among the common people

D) Whig advocacy for the ideas of Andrew Jackson

E) Manifest Destiny and support for national expansion westward

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 251-252 [Factual]

45) The specie circular

A) declared the federal tariff unconstitutional.

B) ordered the relocation of the Cherokee Indians to Oklahoma.

C) required that banknotes be accepted in payment for public land.

D) required that only gold and silver coinage be accepted in payment for public land.

E) made it a federal crime to criticize the president.

Answer: D

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 252 [Factual]

46) After 1840, the Whig Party would be most closely identified with the concept of

A) manhood suffrage.

B) a "negative liberal state."

C) a "positive liberal state."

D) the common man.

E) closet monarchists.

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 254 [Factual]

47) Belief in a national bank, high tariffs, and federally financed internal improvements best describes the policies of which party in the 1830s?

A) Democrats

B) Republicans

C) Masons

D) Whigs

E) Federalists

Answer: D

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 254 [Factual]

48) The Panic of 1837 was caused by

A) falling agricultural prices.

B) high protective tariffs.

C) the election of Martin Van Buren.

D) renegade Native Americans.

E) national and international economic conditions.

Answer: E

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 252 [Factual]

49) The slogan "Tippecanoe and Tyler, Too" refers to William Henry Harrison's involvement in

A) the suffering of African-American slaves in the South.

B) the forced relocation of eastern tribes west of the Mississippi River.

C) widespread disease and death during the westward movement.

D) a western battle with Native Americans.

E) the nullification crisis.

Answer: D

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 253 [Factual]

50) In the 1840s, which of the following was LEAST likely to determine a person's political identification?

A) social class

B) economic issues

C) religious beliefs

D) ethnic identity

E) lifestyles

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 254 [Factual]

51) Typically, immigrants, Catholics, freethinkers, and backwoods farmers of the 1840s would be members of the

A) Democratic Party.

B) Equal Rights Party.

C) Loco-focos.

D) Whig Party.

E) Republican Party.

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 254 [Factual]

10.2 True/False Questions
1) American hotel managers in the early 1800s shocked European travelers by failing to enforce traditional social distinctions between clients.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 234 [Factual]
2) During the Jacksonian period, there was true equality in every facet of American society.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 234-235 [Factual]
3) One result of the new culture of democracy in the United States was that lower- and middle-class Americans actually treated the rich with more deference and respect.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 236-237 [Factual]
4) "Jacksonian Democracy" was really democracy only for white men.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 244 [Factual]
5) Trade unions had little impact on American politics in the 1820s and 1830s.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 241 [Factual]

6) Andrew Jackson's supporters claimed John Quincy Adams had struck a "corrupt bargain" to win the presidency.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 242 [Factual]

7) Although Andrew Jackson was the champion of the people and leading symbol of American democracy, he was actually a very rich man in terms of the slaves and the land he owned.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 249 [Factual]
8) As president, Andrew Jackson showed an ability to work with his opponents on the major issues of the period.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 243 [Factual]
9) As president, Martin Van Buren was able to carry on the policies and programs of the Jackson years.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 252 [Factual]
10) Andrew Jackson intentionally precipitated the Panic of 1837 by abolishing the Second Bank of the United States.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 252 [Factual]
10.3 Essay Questions
1) In what ways did American cultural developments in the 1820s and 1830s reflect the democratic impulse of the period?

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 237-239 [Conceptual]

2) How did political, economic, and constitutional issues combine to lead to the death of the national bank?

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 249-251 [Conceptual]

3) In what ways did the elections of 1828 and 1840 firmly establish the two-party system in American politics?

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 242-243, 253-254 [Factual]

4) Describe the temperament and political philosophy of Andrew Jackson.

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 242-244, 249-251 [Factual]

5) Is it correct to describe the 1830s as the Age of Democracy? Explain.

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 236-241, 254-255 [Conceptual]

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.

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