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A/hrc/28/68/Add. 1 Advance Version


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A/HRC/28/68/Add.1




Advance Version

Distr.: General

6 March 2015


English/French/Spanish only
Human Rights Council

Twenty-eighth session

Agenda item 3



Promotion and protection of all human rights, civil,
political, economic, social and cultural rights,
including the right to development


Report of the Special Rapporteur on torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment,
Juan E. Méndez


Addendum

Observations on communications transmitted to Governments and replies received*

Contents

Paragraphs Page

Abbreviations 4

I. Introduction 1–4 5

II. Observations by the Special Rapporteur 5–664 5

Algeria 5–9 5

Angola 10–12 6

Argentina 13–15 7

Australia 16–31 7

Bahamas 32–34 10

Bahrain 35–62 10

Bangladesh 63– 64 13

Belarus 65–69 14

Brazil 70–84 14

Brunei Darussalam 85–87 16

Cambodia 88–89 16

China 90–111 17

Colombia 112–115 19

Congo (Republic of the) 117–120 20

Cuba 121–126 21

Cyprus 127–133 22

Democratic People’s Republic of Korea 134–136 23

Democratic Republic of the Congo 137–138 24

Egypt 139–170 25

El Salvador 171–172 29

Eritrea 173–176 29

Ethiopia 177–187 30

Equatorial Guinea 188–189 32

Fiji 190–191 32

Guatemala 192–193 33

Honduras 194–195 33

India 196–203 33

Indonesia 204–210 35

Iran (Islamic Republic of) 211–263 36

Iraq 264–267 46

Israel 268–278 46

Italy 279–280 48

Kazakhstan 281–283 48

Kuwait 284–287 49

Kyrgyzstan 288–293 49

Libya 294–368 50

Morocco 369–382 64

Myanmar 383–387 66

Nepal 388–390 67

Nicaragua 391–399 67

Nigeria 400–403 69

Pakistan 404–416 69

Panama 417–424 71

Papua New Guinea 425–430 72

Philippines 431–434 74

Qatar 435–440 74

Russian Federation 441–457 75

Saudi Arabia 458–476 78

Serbia 477–480 81

Spain 481–486 82

Sri Lanka 487–490 83

Sudan 491–500 84

Sweden 501–504 85

Switzerland 505–509 85

Syrian Arab Republic 510–524 86

Tajikistan 525–536 88

Tanzania 537–541 90

Thailand 542–559 91

Tunisia 560–561 93

Turkey 562–567 93

Ukraine 568–570 94

United Arab Emirates 571–589 95

United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 590–601 97

United States of America 602–630 99

Uzbekistan 631–633 103

Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of) 634–642 104

Vietnam 643–646 105

Yemen 647–664 106

Additional observations 109

Abbreviations

AL Allegation Letter

JAL Joint Allegation Letter

JOC Joint Other Communications

JUA Joint urgent appeal

OC Other Communications

UA Urgent appeal

Methodology

In cases where protection measures apply to one or more individuals, these are referred to as Mr. / Ms. A, B, C, etc. or, just as some specific locations are referred to as A, B, C, etc.



I. Introduction

  1. The present document is submitted by the Special Rapporteur on torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment, Juan E. Méndez, to the Human Rights Council, pursuant to its resolution 25/13.

  2. In the present addendum, the Special Rapporteur provides observations, where considered appropriate, on communications sent to States between 1 December 2013 and 30 November 2014, as well as on responses received from States in relation to these communications until 31 January 2015. Communications sent and responses received during the reporting period are accessible electronically through hyperlinks.

  3. The Special Rapporteur is grateful to all States, which have transmitted responses to communications sent. He considers response to his communications an important part of cooperation by States with his mandate. In this context, the Special Rapporteur recalls paragraph 2(a) of the Human Rights Council resolution 25/13 which urges States to “fully cooperate with and assist the Special Rapporteur in the performance of his or her task, to supply all necessary information requested by him or her and to fully and expeditiously respond to his or her urgent appeals, and urges those Governments that have not yet responded to communications transmitted to them by the Special Rapporteur to answer without further delay.”

  4. The communications and the relevant replies can also be accessed via the encorporated links or in the communications reports of Special Procedures A/HRC/26/21 (communications sent, 1 December 2013 to 28 February 2014; replies received, 1 February to 30 April 2014); A/HRC/27/72 (communications sent, 1 March to 31 May 2014; replies received, 1 May to 31 July 2014) and A/HRC/28/85 (communications sent, 1 June to 30 November 2014; replies received, 1 August 2014 to 31 January 2015).

II. Observations by the Special Rapporteur

Algeria

(a) AL JUA 20/12/2013 Case No. DZA 7/2013 State Reply: None to date Allégations de détention au secret de M. Djamel Ameziane.



  1. Le Rapporteur spécial regrette que le gouvernement de l’Algérie n’ait pas répondu à la présente communication, échouant ainsi à coopérer avec le mandat émis par le Conseil des droits de l'homme dans sa résolution 25/13, ainsi qu’à se conformer à son obligation, en vertu du droit international coutumier, d'enquêter, poursuivre, et punir tout acte de torture et autres peines ou traitements cruels, inhumains ou dégradants, comme codifié, entre autre, dans la Convention contre la torture et autres peines ou traitements cruels, inhumains ou dégradants

  2. En l’absence d’information prouvant le contraire, le Rapporteur conclut qu’il y a de la substance quant aux allégations présentées dans la communication initiale, réitérées ci-dessus, et donc, que le gouvernement de l’Algérie, en échouant à fournir des informations sur l'endroit où se trouve M. Ameziane, a violé son droit de ne pas être soumis à la torture ou autres peines ou traitements cruels, inhumains ou dégradants, comme prévu dans les articles 1 et 16 de la CCT.

(b) JOL 30/12/2013 Case No. DZA 8/2013 State Reply: 11/04/2014 Allégations concernant la découverte d’un charnier qui pourrait contenir les corps des personnes qui seraient des victimes de disparation forcée.

  1. Le Rapporteur spécial remercie le gouvernement de l’Algérie pour sa réponse, datée du 11 avril 2014, à la présente communication. Le Rapporteur prend note de l’information fournie par le gouvernement selon laquelle la gendarmerie nationale d’Azzaba sous l’autorité de M. le Procureur de la République près du Tribunal d’Azzaba, Cour de Skikda, aurait entrepris une enquête. Selon l’information reçue, les investigations sont toujours au stade de l’enquête préliminaire et les experts sont en train de confirmer les identités des 28 personnes trouvées dans le charnier. En outre, l’Etat note qu’aucune allégation de disparation forcée n'a été portée à son attention et que le Constantine de la Coordination nationale des familles de disparus a demandé à être informé des résultats de l’enquête.

  2. Le Rapporteur estime que le gouvernement, dans sa réponse, n'aborde pas suffisamment les préoccupations, les obligations légales, et les questions soulevées dans la communication initiale, ce qui le pousse à déduire que le gouvernement échoue à coopérer sans réserve et promptement avec le mandat émis par le Conseil des droits de l'homme dans sa résolution 25/13, ainsi qu’à se conformer à son obligation, en vertu du droit international coutumier, d'enquêter, poursuivre, et punir tout acte de torture et autres peines ou traitements cruels, inhumains ou dégradants, comme codifié, entre autre, dans la Convention contre la torture et autres peines ou traitements cruels, inhumains ou dégradants (CCT).

  3. En l’absence d’information convaincante prouvant le contraire, le Rapporteur conclut qu’il y a de la substance quant aux allégations présentées dans la communication initiale, réitérées ci-dessus, et donc, que le gouvernement de l’Algérie, en échouant à mener une enquête approfondie, efficace, indépendante, impartiale et rapide et en échouant à protéger le droit imprescriptible à la vérité, y inclus l’obligation de donner accès à l’information recueillie par l’enquête, a violé le droit des victimes et de leurs familles de ne pas être soumis (e) à la torture ou autres peines ou traitements cruels, inhumains ou dégradants, comme prévu dans les articles 1 et 16 de la CCT.

Angola

(a) JAL 05/12/2013 Case No. AGO 5/2013 State Reply: 08/01/2014 Allégations concernant les meurtres présumés de M. Silva Alves Kamulingue et M. Isaías Sebastião Cassule ainsi que le meurtre de M. Manuel “Ganga” de Carvalho.



  1. Le Rapporteur spécial remercie le gouvernement de l’Angola pour sa réponse, datée du 1 août 2014, à la présente communication. Le Rapporteur a pris connaissance de l’explication exhaustive du gouvernement en réponse aux préoccupations, obligations légales et questions soulevées au sujet des meurtres présumés de M. Kamulingue et M. Cassule dans la communication initiale. Il accueille avec intérêt l’information fournie par le gouvernement selon laquelle il a ouvert une enquête et a identifié sept prévenus. En outre, il salue les étapes prises par le gouvernement pour travailler avec les familles des victimes dans le but de minimiser la souffrance causée par la disparition des victimes.

  2. Toutefois, le Rapporteur spécial regrette que le gouvernement de l’Angola n’ait pas répondu aux préoccupations, obligations légales et questions soulevées au sujet du meurtre de M. Manuel “Ganga” de Carvalho, échouant ainsi à coopérer avec le mandat émis par le Conseil des droits de l'homme dans sa résolution 25/13, ainsi qu’à se conformer à son obligation, en vertu du droit international coutumier, d'enquêter, poursuivre, et punir tout acte de torture et autres peines ou traitements cruels, inhumains ou dégradants, comme codifié, entre autre, dans la Convention contre la torture et autres peines ou traitements cruels, inhumains ou dégradants (CCT).

  3. En l’absence d’information suffisante prouvant le contraire, le Rapporteur conclut qu’il y a de la substance quant aux allégations présentées dans la communication initiale, réitérées ci-dessus, et donc, que le gouvernement de l’Angola, en échouant à ouvrir une enquête, a violé le droit de M. Carvalho de ne pas être soumis à la torture et autres peines ou traitements cruels, inhumains ou dégradants, comme prévu dans les articles 1 et 16 de la CCT. Quant à l’enquête et les sept prévenus identifiés au sujet des meurtres présumés de M. Kamuligue et M. Cassule, le Rapporteur demande au gouvernement de l’Angola de lui fournir des informations additionnelles et actualisées.

Argentina

(a) JAL 23/12/2013 Case No. ARG 7/2013 State Replies: 30/12/2013 and 26/03/2014 Alegaciones relativas a la ausencia de protección del Gobierno ante los saqueos y confrontaciones entre individuos civiles, durante las protestas de las fuerzas policiales que tuvieron lugar el 3 y 4 de diciembre de 2013 en las provincias de Córdoba, Chaco, Tucumán y Jujuy, resultando en la muerte de nueve individuos y 250 personas heridas.



  1. El Relator Especial agradece al Gobierno de Argentina por sus respuestas, de fechas 30 de diciembre de 2013 y 26 de marzo del 2014, acusando recibo de la presente comunicación.

  2. El Relator Especial toma nota de la información ofrecida por el Gobierno sobre los saqueos y confrontaciones entre civiles durante las protestas de las fuerzas policiales que tuvieron lugar el 3 y 4 de diciembre de 2013 en las provincias de Córdoba, Chaco, Tucumán y Jujuy y da cuenta de que, a la fecha del envío de la respuesta, las circunstancias del caso se encontraban bajo investigación. Toma nota, asimismo, de las instrucciones dadas a fiscales federales de encuadrar los acontecimientos bajo las figuras de rebelión o sedición por la presunta actitud de algunos funcionarios de policías provinciales de facilitar o hasta fomentar los disturbios.

  3. Las notas del Gobierno antes mencionadas prometían una actualización a medida que las causas avanzaran; hasta el momento, sin embargo, la Relatoría carece de nueva información. El Relator considera por ello que las respuestas recibidas no responden adecuadamente a las inquietudes presentadas en la comunicación inicial ni constituyen por ahora cooperación plena y rápida con el mandato establecido por el Consejo de Derechos Humanos en la resolución 25/13. Las respuestas presentadas por el gobierno de Argentina sólo se refieren a las acciones judiciales que se estaban llevando a cabo sin elaborar en qué etapa procesal se encontraban, más allá de las mencionadas instrucciones a los fiscales federales. El Relator Especial desea insistir en la obligación emanada de la norma consuetudinaria internacional y de la Convención contra la Tortura (CAT), de investigar, juzgar y sancionar todos los actos de tortura y tratos crueles, inhumanos o degradantes.

Australia

(a) JAL 27/03/2014 Case No.AUS 1/2014 State Reply: 26/05/2014 Allegations of indefinite detention of asylum seekers, detention conditions, alleged detention of children, and escalating violence and tension at the Regional Processing Centre.



  1. The Special Rapporteur thanks the Government of Australia for its reply, dated 26.05.2014, to the present communication.

  2. The Rapporteur welcomes the Government’s initiatives to investigate and review the events of 16-18 February; however, he regrets that the Government has not to this date submitted, as announced in its initial reply, any substantive reply.

  3. The Rapporteur hence finds that the Government, in its reply, does not sufficiently address the concerns, legal obligations, and questions raised in the initial communication, which prompts him to infer that the Government fails to fully and expeditiously cooperate with the mandate issued by the Human Rights Council in its resolution 25/13, as well as to comply with its obligation, under international customary law, to investigate, prosecute and punish all acts of torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment, as codified, inter alia, in the Convention against Torture (CAT).

  4. In the absence of information to the contrary, the Rapporteur concludes that there is substance in the allegations presented in the initial communication, reiterated above, and thus, that the Government of Australia, by failing to provide adequate detention conditions; end the practice of detention of children; and put a stop to the escalating violence and tension at the Regional Processing Centre, has violated the right of the asylum seekers, including children, to be free from torture or cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment, as provided by articles 1 and 16 of the CAT.

(a) UA 08/07/2014 Case No. AUS 2/2014 State Reply: 10/07/2014 Allegations concerning the situation of two groups of Sri Lankan asylum seekers and migrants (203 in total), including a significant number of Tamils, and their incommunicado detention and imminent deportation to Sri Lanka by the Australian Government, in contravention of Australia’s non-refoulement obligations.

  1. The Special Rapporteur thanks the Government of Australia for its reply, dated 10 July 2014, to the present communication.

  2. The Rapporteur finds that the Government, in its reply, does not sufficiently address the concerns, legal obligations, and questions raised in the initial communication, which prompts him to infer that the Government fails to fully and expeditiously cooperate with the mandate issued by the Human Rights Council in its resolution 25/13, as well as to comply with its obligation, under international customary law, to investigate, prosecute and punish all acts of torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment, as codified, inter alia, in the Convention against Torture (CAT). The Government in July 2014, stating that these matters were currently before the High Court of Australia. The Special Rapporteur has not received any communication since.

  3. It has come to the attention of the Special Rapporteur that, as of the drafting of this report, the extradition of the two groups of Sri Lankan asylum seekers and migrants, has not taken place. The Rapporteur strongly urges the Government of Australia to protect the right of these 203 migrants to be free from torture or cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment, as provided by articles 1 and 16 of the CAT, and to refrain from deporting these individuals to Sri Lanka where they risk torture, thereby ensuring compliance with article 3 of the CAT.

(b) JUA 17/11/2014 Case No. AUS 4/2014 State Reply: 16/12/2014 Allegations concerning acts of intimidation and ill-treatment of two asylum-seekers, following their statements regarding the violent attacks against asylum-seekers, which allegedly took place between 16 and 18 February 2014 at the Manus Regional Processing Centre, and immigration detention centre located in Manus Island, Papua New Guinea, whose internal security is operated by a company on behalf of the Australian Government.

  1. The Special Rapporteur thanks the Government of Australia for its reply, dated 16 December 2014, to the present communication.

  2. The Rapporteur takes note of the information provided by the Government that the allegations concerning the ill-treatment of Mr. A and Mr. B are subject to domestic legal proceedings currently before the High Court of Australia. He welcomes the Australian Governments adoption of 9 out of the 13 recommendations in the report “Review into the events of 16-18 February 2014 at the Manus Regional Processing Centre”, that was released on 23 May 2014. In spite of the information supplied by the Government, its reply fails to inform the Rapporteur about the status and progress of the case concerning Mr. A and Mr. B.

  3. The Rapporteur finds that the Government, in its reply, does not sufficiently address all of the concerns, legal obligations, and questions raised in the initial communication, which prompts him to infer that the Government fails to fully and expeditiously cooperate with the mandate issued by the Human Rights Council in its resolution 25/13, as well as to comply with its obligation, under international customary law, to investigate, prosecute and punish all acts of torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment, as codified, inter alia, in the Convention Against Torture (CAT).

  4. In the absence of sufficient information to the contrary, the Rapporteur concludes that there is substance in the allegations presented in the initial communication, reiterated above, and thus, that the Government of Australia, by failing to provide any additional information or details of the investigation into Mr. A and Mr. B’s allegations, has violated their right to be free from torture or cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment, as provided by article 1 and 16 of the CAT.

(c) JOL 17/11/2014 Case No. AUS 5/2014 State Reply: 23/12/2014 Allegations concerning the Migration and Maritime Powers Legislation Amendment (Resolving the Asylum Legacy Caseload) Bill 2014 and the Migration Amendment (Character and General Visa Cancellation) Bill 2014 which are reportedly being scrutinized by the Senate’s Legal and Constitutional Affairs Committee.

  1. The Special Rapporteur thanks the Government of Australia for its reply, dated 23 December 2014, to the present communication.

  2. The Rapporteur acknowledges the comprehensive account of the Government in response to the concerns, legal obligations and questions raised in the initial communication.

  3. He takes note of the information provided by the Government that the Migration Amendment (Character and General Visa Cancellation) Bill 2014 and the Migration and Maritime Powers Legislation Amendment (Resolving the Asylum Legacy Caseload) Bill 2014 passed both Houses of Parliament on 26 November 2014 and 15 December 2014, respectively.

  4. Notwithstanding, the Rapporteur surmises that both bills put Australia at risk of violating the Convention Against Torture (CAT). The Migration and Maritime Powers Legislation Amendment, which has passed both the house and the Senate of Australia at this point, violates the CAT because it allows for the arbitrary detention and refugee determination at sea, without access to lawyers. The Migration Amendment (Character and General Visa Cancelation Bill violates the CAT because it tightens control on the issuance of visas on the basis of character and risk assessments.

  5. The Rapporteur concludes that the Government of Australia, by failing to amend the provisions of the two bills to comply with the State’s obligations under international human rights law, particularly with regard to the rights of migrants, and asylum seekers, including children, has violated the rights of migrants and asylum seekers to be free from torture or cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment, as provided by articles 1, 3, and 16 of the CAT.

Bahamas

UA 25/06/2014 Case No. BHS 1/2014 State Reply: None to date Allegations of imminent deportation of Mr. X who has applied for asylum in Naussau and is detained in the Carmichael Road Migration Center, the Bahamas.



  1. The Special Rapporteur regrets that the Government of the Bahamas has not replied to the present communication, thereby failing to cooperate with the mandate issued by the Human Rights Council in its resolution 25/13, and to comply with its obligation, under international customary law, to investigate, prosecute and punish all acts of torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment, as codified, inter alia, in the Convention against Torture (CAT).

  2. In the absence of information to the contrary, the Rapporteur concludes that there is substance in the allegations presented in the initial communication, reiterated above and thus, that the Government of the Bahamas, by seeking to extradite Mr. X, violates his right to be free from torture or cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment, as provided by articles 1 and 16 of the CAT.

  3. It has come to the attention of the Special Rapporteur that, as of the drafting of this report, the extradition of Mr. X has not taken place. The Rapporteur strongly urges the Government of the Bahamas to protect the right of Mr. X to be free from torture or cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment, as provided by articles 1 and 16 of the CAT, and to refrain from extraditing Mr. X, thereby ensuring compliance with article 3 of the CAT.
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