MLA FOOTNOTING: ELECTRONIC SOURCES
Footnotes for Internet sources follow this basic pattern, omitting any items that are not available:
Author of the actual item cited (often not given)
Title or heading of the item (in quotation marks)
Name of the website (underlined)
Name of the site’s editor or complier (if any), with “ed.”
Date of electronic publication or latest update of the site
Name of the organization responsible for the site
Date that you downloaded the information
Full Internet address (in angle brackets)
There are no page numbers to cite in footnotes for Internet material. (Do not refer to the page numbers of your printout sheets.)
If your computer turns the Internet address into a blue hyperlink, cancel this. (Click on the address with the left mouse button: go to Hyperlink; click on Remove Hyperlink)
WEBSITES: TYPICAL VARIATIONS
An item from an Internet website. In this case, the author is named and the organization responsible for the site is identified.
1Jonathan Feeny, “Construction of the CPR,” Canadian History Matrix, ed. Emily Black, May 2001, University of Alberta, 23 Jan. 2002 .
Any further footnotes to this site would be in short form: 4Feeny.
An anonymous Internet item with no organization identified. Open with the article’s heading, followed by the title of the website and the name of the site editor.
2“Women from Canada’s Past,” Women in History, ed. Sheila Trask, 17 Dec. 2001 .
Further footnotes to this site: 5 “Women from Canada’s Past.”
Item from an Internet database
3World Flag Database, ed. Graham Bantram, 3 Jan. 2002, The Flag Institute, 27 Jan. 2002 .
Further footnotes to this site: 6World Flag Database.
OTHER INTENET SOURCES
Item from an Internet encyclopedia
7”Armenia,” Britannica Online, 28 Feb. 2002 .
Article from an Internet magazine (following the magazine title, give the issue date, then downloading date and address)
8 Lisa Pease, “Sirhan and the RFK Assassination,” Probe Apr. 1999, 20 Mar. 2002 .
Article from an Internet journal(following the journal title, give the volume and issue numbers and the year, then downloading date and address)
9Elizabeth B. Gianelli, “The Legacy of the Crusaders,” Journal of Medieval History 31.8 (2001), 6 Apr. 2002 .
Item originally from a periodical, accessed through a library’s Internet subscription service
10David Levine, “Learning to Listen,” Early Education May 2000: 76-82, ProQuest, Dawson Library, Montreal, 2 Mar. 2002 .
OTHER ELELCTRONIC SOURCES
Items from a CD or DVD
11“Oedipus Complex,” PsychoPrimer, CD-ROM, vers. 3:1 (Miami: Brainworks, 1999).
Article from a CD or DVD encyclopedia
12 “Afghanistan,” Encarta, CD-ROM, 2002 Standard vers.
Film (director is always named; performers, producer, etc. may also be included)
13Schinder’s List, dir. Steven Spielberg, perf. Liam Neeson, Ben Kingsley, videocassette, Universal Pictures, 1993.
Television or radio program (writer, narrator, director, or performers may be named, according to the nature of the program)
14“Ecology: A Delicate Balance,” The Nature of Things, narr. David Suzuki, CBC, 10 Nov. 2001.