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A literature-based presence measurement instrument: the temple presence inventory (tpi) (beta)


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Media Interface and Network Design (M.I.N.D.) Lab

Temple University

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA


A LITERATURE-BASED PRESENCE MEASUREMENT INSTRUMENT:
THE TEMPLE PRESENCE INVENTORY (TPI) (BETA)

The Temple Presence Inventory (TPI) is a new tool to measure dimensions of (tele)presence.
The TPI:

Please use the entire inventory, sets of items for specific dimensions, and/or individual items, as you deem useful and appropriate in your research. Feel free to modify items as needed. All that we (Matthew Lombard and Theresa Ditton) ask is that you help refine the instrument by reporting on your experience using all or part of the TPI. Please direct reports of use and/or questions to Matthew Lombard at lombard@temple.edu.


SPATIAL PRESENCE:
VAR NAME LDNG ITEM

place .89 How much did it seem as if the objects and people you saw/heard had come to the place you were?
(Not at all - Very much [7 points])

touch .88 How much did it seem as if you could reach out and touch the objects or people you saw/heard?
(Not at all - Very much [7 points])

object .83 How often when an object seemed to be headed toward you did you want to move to get out of its way?
(Never - Always [7 points])

bethere .79 To what extent did you experience a sense of being there inside the environment you saw/heard?
(Not at all – Very much [7 points])

sndlocal .72 To what extent did it seem that sounds came from specific different locations?
(Not at all - Very much [7 points])

touchsmg .68 How often did you want to or try to touch something you saw/heard?
(Never - Always [7 points])

window .58 Did the experience seem more like looking at the events/people on a movie screen or more like looking at the events/people through a window?
(Like a movie screen – Like a window [7 points])
Eigenvalue: 4.19

Variance Explained: 59.85

Standardized Cronbach's Alpha: .91
SOCIAL PRESENCE - ACTOR W/I MEDIUM (PARASOCIAL INTERACTION):
VAR NAME LDNG ITEM

pplseeu .83 How often did you have the sensation that people you saw/heard could also see/hear you?
(Never - Always [7 points])

interact .82 To what extent did you feel you could interact with the person or people you saw/heard?
(None - Very much [7 points])

leftplce .79 How much did it seem as if you and the people you saw/heard both left the places where you were and went to a new place?
(Not at all - Very much [7 points])

together .78 How much did it seem as if you and the people you saw/heard were together in the same place?
(Not at all - Very much [7 points])

talktoyu .77 How often did it feel as if someone you saw/heard in the environment was talking directly to you?
(Never - Always [7 points])

eyecont .68 How often did you want to or did you make eye-contact with someone you saw/heard?
(Never - Always [7 points])

contrint .67 Seeing and hearing a person through a medium constitutes an interaction with him or her. How much control over the interaction with the person or people you saw/heard did you feel you had?
(None - Very much [7 points])
Eigenvalue: 4.08

Variance Explained: 58.24

Standardized Cronbach's Alpha: .90


SOCIAL PRESENCE - PASSIVE INTERPERSONAL:
VAR NAME LDNG ITEM

faceexpr .89 During the media experience how well were you able to observe the facial expressions of the people you saw/heard?
(Not well - Very well [7 points])

tonevoic .85 During the media experience how well were you able to observe the changes in tone of voice of the people you saw/heard?
(Not well - Very well [7 points])

styldres .79 During the media experience how well were you able to observe the style of dress of the people you saw/heard?
(Not well - Very well [7 points])

bodylang .69 During the media experience how well were you able to observe the body language of the people you saw/heard?
(Not well - Very well [7 points])
Eigenvalue: 2.61

Variance Explained: 65.27

Standardized Cronbach's Alpha: .88

SOCIAL PRESENCE - ACTIVE INTERPERSONAL:
VAR NAME LDNG ITEM

mksound .84 How often did you make a sound out loud (e.g. laugh or speak) in response to someone you saw/heard in the media environment?
(Never - Always [7 points])

smile .73 How often did you smile in response to someone you saw/heard in the media environment?
(Never - Always [7 points])

speak .61 How often did you want to or did you speak to a person you saw/heard in the media environment?
(Never - Always [7 points])
Eigenvalue: 1.61

Variance Explained: 53.51

Standardized Cronbach's Alpha: .77


ENGAGEMENT (MENTAL IMMERSION):
VAR NAME LDNG ITEM

mentalim .86 To what extent did you feel mentally immersed in the experience?
(Not at all - Very much [7 points])

involvng .80 How involving was the experience?
(Not at all - Very much [7 points])

senseeng .79 How completely were your senses engaged?
(Not at all - Very much [7 points])

sensreal .79 To what extent did you experience a sensation of reality?
(Not at all - Very much [7 points])

exciting .75 How relaxing or exciting was the experience?
(Very relaxing - Very exciting [7 points])

engstory .65 How engaging was the story?
(Not at all - Very much [7 points])
Eigenvalue: 3.61

Variance Explained: 60.10

Standardized Cronbach's Alpha: .90


SOCIAL RICHNESS:
VAR NAME LDNG ITEM

remote .85 Please circle the number that best describes your evaluation of the media experience: Remote - Immediate (7 points)

unemotnl .83 Please circle the number that best describes your evaluation of the media experience: Unemotional - Emotional (7 points)

unrespon .82 Please circle the number that best describes your evaluation of the media experience: Unresponsive - Responsive (7 points)

dead .80 Please circle the number that best describes your evaluation of the media experience: Dead - Lively (7 points)

impersnl .78 Please circle the number that best describes your evaluation of the media experience: Impersonal - Personal (7 points)

insenstv .76 Please circle the number that best describes your evaluation of the media experience: Insensitive - Sensitive (7 points)

unsocble .76 Please circle the number that best describes your evaluation of the media experience: Unsociable - Sociable (7 points)
Eigenvalue: 4.48

Variance Explained: 63.99

Standardized Cronbach's Alpha: .93


SOCIAL REALISM:
VAR NAME LDNG ITEM

wouldocr .87 The events I saw/heard would occur in the real world
(Strongly disagree - Strongly agree [7 points])

couldocr .76 The events I saw/heard could occur in the real world
(Strongly disagree - Strongly agree [7 points])

ocrworld .53 The way in which the events I saw/heard occurred is a lot like the way they occur in the real world
(Strongly disagree - Strongly agree [7 points])
Eigenvalue: 1.60

Variance Explained: 53.34

Standardized Cronbach's Alpha: .75

PERCEPTUAL REALISM:
VAR NAME LDNG ITEM

feellike .80 Overall how much did touching the things and people in the environment you saw/heard feel like it would if you had experienced them directly?
(Not at all - Very much [7 points])

temperat .74 How much did the heat or coolness (temperature) of the environment you saw/heard feel like it would if you had experienced it directly?
(Not at all - Very much [7 points])

smellike .70 Overall, how much did the things and people in the environment you saw/heard smell like they would had you experienced them directly?
(Not at all - Very much [7 points])

looklike - Overall, how much did the things and people in the environment you saw/heard look they would if you had experience them directly
(Not at all - Very much [7 points])

soundlke - Overall, how much did the things and people in the environment you saw/heard sound like they would if you had experienced them directly?
(Not at all - Very much [7 points])
Eigenvalue: 1.67

Variance Explained: 55.71



Standardized Cronbach's Alpha: .79
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