Orthodox Church (Eastern)
Eastern Orthodoxy consists of several autocephalous (self-governing) churches: the four ancient Patriarchates of the early church, Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch and Jerusalem, the four Patriarchates of more recent origin, Russia, Serbia, Romania, and Bulgaria, the Catholicosate of Georgia, and the churches of Cyprus, Greece, Poland, Albania, and the Czech Lands and Slovakia. It also includes the autonomous Orthodox churches of Finland and Estonia (with two jurisdictions). The Eastern Orthodox “diaspora” consists of churches in the Americas, Asia, Australia, Western Europe and sub-Saharan Africa. In the United States and Japan, some Orthodox churches have been granted autonomy or semi-autonomy, though these churches have not been recognized by all Orthodox churches. The monastery of Sinai is an autonomous monastic community related to the Patriarchate of Jerusalem, and Mount Athos and the semi-autonomous Church of Crete remain under the jurisdiction of the Patriarchate of Constantinople.
The Eastern Orthodox churches hold the same faith, that of the seven ecumenical councils, as well as sacraments. The Patriarch of Constantinople is called the Ecumenical Patriarch, and has a position as “first among equals”. It is he who convenes pan-Orthodox conferences, after consultation with the leaders of the other Orthodox churches. The Orthodox Church sees itself as the unbroken continuation of the Christian Church established by Christ and his apostles in the first century CE, and does not recognize any council since the Second Council of Nicea (787 CE) as ecumenical. Throughout the latter part of the first millennium of Christianity there developed an increasingly difficult relationship between the sees of Rome and Constantinople that led to a schism in 1054 CE. The estrangement evolved further between the 11th and 15th centuries and was exacerbated by the destructive effects of the Fourth Crusade in the early 13th century. The formal break occurred in the 15th century. The issues dividing the churches were the universal supremacy of jurisdiction of the Pope of Rome, and the doctrinal issue of the filioque (“and the Son”), the phrase inserted into the Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed (381 CE) in 6th century Spain, which stated, “the Holy Spirit proceeds from the Father and the Son”.
While the Orthodox churches acknowledge seven sacraments, or “mysteries”, there are other sacramental actions that make up the liturgical life of the church. Baptism takes place by full immersion, and the sacraments of chrismation (confirmation) and eucharist follow. These sacraments are performed by a clergyman, and children are baptized and chrismated as infants, thereby allowing them to partake of the eucharist. The bread and wine in the eucharist become, through consubstantiation, the real body and blood of Christ; eucharist is received after careful preparation which includes fasting and confession. The worship services are held in national languages, though in some churches the original liturgical languages are used rather than the vernacular. The veneration of icons plays an important role in Orthodox worship, and prayers to the Mother of God and the saints enrich the liturgical texts. Bishops have been drawn from the ranks of the monastic communities since the 6th century CE, and since the Orthodox Church does not prohibit a married priesthood, many of the parish priests are married. Women have been blessed as diaconesses over the last few years. Monasticism has played and continues to play a major role in the life of the Orthodox Church.
The Patriarchate of Constantinople initiated the role of the Orthodox churches in the modern ecumenical movement, with its Encyclical Letter dating from 1920 to “all the churches of Christ”. The call of the letter was for a “koinonia of churches” which would work for charitable cooperation and theological dialogue. The Ecumenical Patriarchate is a founding member of the World Council of Churches. There have been permanent representatives of the Ecumenical Patriarchate and the Russian Orthodox Church at the WCC since 1955 and 1962, respectively.
The role of the Ecumenical Patriarch as the primary spiritual leader of the Orthodox Christian world and a transnational figure of global significance continues to become more vital each day. His All-Holiness Patriarch Bartholomew co-sponsored the Peace and Tolerance Conference in Istanbul (1994) bringing together Christians, Muslims and Jews. Most noted are his efforts in environmental awareness, which have earned him the title “Green Patriarch.” He has organized environmental seminars in co-sponsorship with His Royal Highness Prince Philip, and international environmental symposia on Patmos (1995) and around the Black Sea (1997). Since 1999 three other Religion, Science and the Environment International Symposia have taken place under the joint auspices of His All Holiness Ecumenical Patriarch Bartholomew and His Excellency Mr Romano Prodi, former President of the European Commission: Symposium III, which sailed down the Danube River; Symposium IV: “The Adriatic Sea: A Sea at Risk, a Unity of Purpose” (June 2002) and Symposium V: “The Baltic Sea: A Common Heritage, A Shared Responsibility” (June 2003). These endeavours, together with his inspiring efforts on behalf of religious freedom and human rights, rank Ecumenical Patriarch Bartholomew among the world’s foremost apostles of love, peace and reconciliation for humanity, a reason for which he was awarded the Congressional Gold Medal by the US Congress.
Other examples of significant contributions from Eastern Orthodox churches are the social doctrine laid out by the Russian Orthodox Church, the relationship with Islam lived out by the Greek Orthodox Church of Antioch, the work on bio-ethics by the Church of Greece, and the renewal and mission of the Orthodox Autocephalous Church of Albania after decades of communist persecution.
The Orthodox Church (Eastern) numbers its membership at 300 million worldwide. With the exception of Georgia and Bulgaria which withdrew in 1997 and 1998, and Estonia, all the Orthodox churches (Eastern) are members of the WCC.
Website: www.ec-patr.org & www.ecupatria.org
Eastern Orthodox churches:
Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople Greek Orthodox Patriarchate of Alexandria and All Africa Greek Orthodox Patriarchate of Antioch and All the East Greek Orthodox Patriarchate of Jerusalem Russian Orthodox Church Romanian Orthodox Church
Bulgarian Orthodox Church
Serbian Orthodox Church Church of Cyprus Church of Greece Polish Autocephalous Orthodox Church in Poland Orthodox Autocephalous Church of Albania Orthodox Church in the Czech Lands and Slovakia Orthodox Church of Finland
Orthodox Church of Estonia
Orthodox Church in America Orthodox Church in Japan
Georgian Orthodox Church
Orthodox churches (Oriental)
The Oriental Orthodox family is comprised of the Ethiopian, Coptic, Armenian, Syrian, Indian and Eritrean Churches. Historically they have been referred to as non-or anti- or pre-Chalcedonian, Monophysite, Ancient Oriental or Lesser Eastern. Presently the generally accepted name is Oriental Orthodox. The majority of the members of these churches live in Ethiopia, Egypt, Eritrea, Armenia, India, Syria and Lebanon. There are also large diaspora communities in parts of the Middle East, Europe, Asia, North and South America, and Australia. The Oriental Orthodox churches are ancient churches which were founded in apostolic times, by apostles or by the apostles’ earliest disciples. Their doctrinal position is based on the teachings of the first three ecumenical councils (Nicea 325, Constantinople 381 and Ephesus 431). The Alexandrian school of thought has guided and shaped their theological reflection. The teachings of Saint Cyril the Great constitute the foundation of their Christology. They are firmly attached to the Cyrilian formula of “One nature of the Word Incarnate”. Their theology is biblical, liturgical and patristic, and is embodied in mysticism and spirituality.
The Oriental Orthodox churches, along with those of the Byzantine tradition or Eastern Orthodox, belong to the larger family of the Orthodox churches. The two groups are not in communion with each other. The breach, which occurred in 451, marking the first ecclesial division in church history, was about the Christological teaching of the Council of Chalcedon. Through the centuries confrontation and estrangement, but also dialogue and rapprochement have characterized the relations between the Oriental and Eastern Orthodox churches. In 1985, after two decades of unofficial meetings, the two groups engaged in an official theological dialogue, which has resulted in Christological agreements. The main remaining question is the reception of the agreements in the churches.
The history and life of the Oriental Orthodox churches has been marked by ceaseless persecution and massacres under the Byzantine, Persian, Muslim and Ottoman powers. The sufferings have had a profound impact on their life, witness, theology and spirituality. Yet this life of the cross has not led them to become entirely isolated and introverted. In spite of their continuous suffering, these churches have sustained themselves through constant efforts of renewal. Under the imperative of new realities and the demands of changing times, they have been able to challenge the strong traditionalism and inward-looking estate that prevailed for some time, due to the historical circumstances. While ancient traditions still dominate, a fresh vitality and creativity are blowing in these churches, both in their motherlands and in the diaspora. They have significantly revived monastic life as a rich source of spirituality, evangelism and diakonia for clergy as well as laity, men and women. They have reorganized theological education. Sunday schools have become centres of intense activities. Youth movements and student associations have been created. Bible study seminars, courses for the Christian formation of laity, fasting and daily celebrations of saints are vivid expressions of deep spirituality and of evangelistic inreach and outreach, which nurture and build these communities of faith. They are churches of the people, without the dichotomy between institution and community. The whole people of God participate actively in the life and witness of the church.
In early centuries the Oriental Orthodox churches have played a pivotal role in the expansion of Christianity beyond the borders of the Byzantine empire. The Christian faith was taken from Alexandria down to Africa, from Armenia to the North, from Antioch to the Far East. In later centuries, because of changing political and religious conditions, the missionary activities have been carried on mainly in terms of building and sustaining their own community. In today’s context of a globalized world, and of pluralistic societies, there is an increasing awareness on the part of the Oriental Orthodox churches of the need to renew the methodologies and forms of mission and evangelism.
Although the Oriental Orthodox churches have suffered from Western missionary efforts in the Christian East, both Catholic and Protestant, they have taken the ecumenical challenge seriously. They firmly believe that meeting together, praying together and entering into frank and critical dialogue with their ecumenical partners is the will of the Lord. The World Council of Churches is for them the most comprehensive instrument of the ecumenical movement, providing them with a global framework for close and meaningful relationships and cooperation with other churches.
After centuries of isolation from each other, the Oriental Orthodox churches finally met in 1965 in Addis Ababa. At this historic meeting the church heads reaffirmed their belonging to one faith. They took several decisions which, for many reasons, have not fully materialized. The challenge remains to give more visibility and tangible expression to the unity of faith of the Oriental Orthodox churches. Among the issues they need to address together are the influence of secularism, the resurgence of religious fundamentalism and the increasing migration of the faithful from the motherlands to other parts of the world. The Oriental Orthodox family does not have an organized institution. Since 1996 the heads of the three churches in the Middle East (Coptic, Armenian and Syrian) have put in place a framework for annual meetings at which they discuss common concerns and issues. Several working groups have been formed to assist the patriarchs with this process. Besides the dialogue with the Eastern Orthodox, the Oriental Orthodox as a family is also engaged in a theological dialogue with the World Alliance of Reformed Churches, the Catholic Church and the Anglican Communion. The Oriental Orthodox churches have much to share with other churches. They have preserved a strong sense of history and tradition. They can make a unique contribution through their monastic tradition, oriental spirituality, rich liturgy and mystical theology.
The Oriental Orthodox churches, which are all members of the World Council of Churches, represent some 60 million Christians.
Churches which belong to the Oriental Orthodox family
Armenian Apostolic Church (Holy See of Etchmiadzin)
Armenian Apostolic Church (Holy See of Cilicia)
Coptic Orthodox Church
Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church
Eritrean Orthodox Tewahedo Church
Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church (India)
Syrian Orthodox Patriarchate of Antioch and All the East
The Pentecostal movement includes a large number of denominations, independent churches, and para-church organizations that emphasize the work of the Holy Spirit in the lives of Christian believers. It emerged first in North America at the beginning of the 20th century, when members of the Wesleyan Holiness Movement began to speak in tongues and identified it as the “Bible Evidence” that they had been baptized in the Holy Spirit (Acts 1:8, 2:1-4). This baptism in the Spirit was said to provide power for living an “apostolic” life and engaging in an “apostolic” ministry that included the charisms of 1 Corinthians 12:8-10. The movement has gone by such self-designations as “Apostolic Faith,” “Full Gospel,” “Latter Rain,” and “Pentecostal”. One of the first and most important centres of activity to identify itself as “Pentecostal,” emerged under the direction of an African-American pastor, William Joseph Seymour, and the Apostolic Faith Mission at 312 Azusa Street in Los Angeles, in April 1906. Within 18 months of its beginning, the “Azusa Street” Mission had sent out scores of evangelists who crisscrossed North America, and missionaries who ministered in Europe, the Middle East, Africa, Asia, and Mexico.
The earliest Pentecostals drew from their Methodist and Wesleyan Holiness roots, describing their entrance into the fullness of Christian life in three stages: conversion, sanctification, and baptism in the Spirit. Each of these stages was often understood as a separate, datable, “crisis” experience. Other Pentecostals, from the Reformed tradition or touched by the Keswick teachings on the Higher Christian Life, came to view sanctification not as a crisis experience, but as an ongoing quest. This debate resulted in the first major schism among early Pentecostals. Groups such as the Church of God in Christ, the Church of God (Cleveland, TN), and the International Pentecostal Holiness Church continue to teach the former position, known as “Holiness”. Groups such as the Assemblies of God and the International Church of the Foursquare Gospel hold the latter position, called “Finished Work”.
A second major schism developed between 1907 and 1916, in discussions over the “apostolic” baptismal formula. Most Pentecostals argued for the classic Trinitarian formula, while others contended for the formula “in the Name of Jesus Christ” recorded in Acts (cf. Acts 2:38). By 1916 a new group of churches known as “Oneness” or “Jesus’ Name” churches had formed. Among them are the Pentecostal Assemblies of the World and the United Pentecostal Church. Many of these groups ultimately embraced an understanding of the Godhead in terms that border on a modal understanding.
All three segments of Pentecostalism, “Holiness”, “Finished Work” and “Oneness” believe in the imminent return of Jesus Christ, and therefore are highly evangelistic and missionary driven. As a result, Pentecostalism is today found in all the regions of the world, and is still growing. It is the largest non-Catholic Christian presence in Latin America. It has grown enormously throughout Africa, often giving rise to African Independent or Indigenous churches. In Asia, Pentecostalism is strong in places like the Philippines, Korea, India, and among the majority of house churches in China. The largest Pentecostal congregations in the world are found in Seoul and Surabaya. At the time of the beginnings of Pentecostalism, several autochthonous Pentecostal churches emerged in Chile (1910) and elsewhere in Latin America that were not directly touched by North American missionary efforts. It is these churches that have been most open to the ecumenical movement. Some of them became members of the WCC in the 1960s, and a good number have joined the Latin American Council of Churches after it was formed in 1982.
The majority of Pentecostal churches have chosen not to participate in any ecumenical organization. This comes, in part, because of their restorationist perspective on the history of the church that views existing churches as having fallen away from God’s intentions through compromise and sin. Another reason is the way so many existing churches have marginalized and rejected the Pentecostals when they attempted to share their testimonies of what God had done in their lives. As a result, sectarian thinking has dominated much of the movement, which in many cases developed an eschatological position that feared ecumenical contact. In 1947, Pentecostals representing all but the Oneness groups gathered in Zurich, Switzerland for a Pentecostal world conference. Many leaders hoped to establish an organization for Pentecostals similar to the WCC that was then in formation. They were unable to do so because of the strongly congregational-centred Pentecostals of Scandinavia and Brazil. Since that time, Pentecostal leaders have gathered in Pentecostal world conferences where a small presidium has discussed items of mutual interest and concern. In 2004 the PWC formally took the name Pentecostal World Fellowship.
For the most part of the 20th century, Pentecostals have tended to identify with the Evangelical movement, and to join Evangelical structures. More recently, Pentecostal fellowships, federations or councils have emerged in a number of national and some regional situations. Pentecostal scholars have undertaken to build a body of Pentecostal theology.
Pentecostalism has been able to meet the needs of many on the margins of society and church. It has been effective in bringing people into a personal relationship with God through Jesus Christ, in the power of the Holy Spirit. It encourages its members to share their personal testimonies with others, to live their lives with an eye to “holiness”, to embrace good works as part of the “Spirit-filled” life, to be open to the sovereign movement of the Holy Spirit through charisms, signs and wonders, and to support the work of the church through regular tithing. In recent years, some classical Pentecostal groups have begun to downplay the role of speaking in tongues as evidence of baptism in the Spirit, though they continue to value it as a legitimate charism of the Spirit. Some Pentecostal churches have embraced what is called a “prosperity theology”, proclaiming that God wills both the spiritual and physical (including material) well-being of God’s people. Churches such as the Universal Church of the Kingdom of God and the Pentecostal Church God Is Love that emerged in the 1980s in Brazil are controversial even among other Pentecostal churches, for the extent to which they emphasize this teaching.
The emergence of the National Association of Evangelicals in the USA and the World Evangelical Fellowship (now Alliance) in the 1940s, the testimony of the Latin American Pentecostal churches that joined the WCC, and especially the pioneering work of Pentecostal David du Plessis, have created a Pentecostal openness to limited ecumenical contact. Since 1972, Pentecostals have been in dialogue with the Pontifical Council for Promoting Christian Unity of the Catholic Church. Since 1993, they have been represented at the annual meeting of the Secretaries of Christian World Communions. An international dialogue was established between Pentecostals and the World Alliance of Reformed Churches in 1995, and another between Pentecostals and the WCC, through the Joint Consultative Group authorized at the Harare assembly in 1998. A new dialogue has been established with members from the Lutheran World Federation in 2005.
Groups that participate in the Charismatic Renewal and have maintained membership in their historic denominations have often formed positive relationships with the older classical Pentecostal churches. Similarly, churches of the so-called “Third Wave” (largely charismatic groups like the Vineyard) and many “New Apostolic” groups are related to classical Pentecostalism. They all share many points of theology and experience. According to the World Christian Database, classical Pentecostals number 78 million, Charismatics 192 million and Neo-charismatics 318 million.
www.pctii.org; www.sps-usa.org; www.cepla.org (in Spanish)
While the term Reformed has sometimes been taken to include all the Protestant churches which have accepted the principles of the Reformation, it is used here in the more accurate sense to refer specifically to church bodies which have theological and historical roots in the French and Swiss-led Reformation (Jean Calvin, Ulrich Zwingli, Bullinger, etc.). The primary presupposition of the Reformed churches is that the risen Christ is the only head of the church. Thus there is no stress on a special elite person or group that has received through direct revelation or by the laying on of hands extraordinary powers of authority. Doctrines are traditionally governed by such principles as Sola Scriptura, salvation by grace through faith in Jesus Christ, God’s sovereignty, and the calling to be agents of transformation in the world. Worship is usually simple, orderly and dignified, with an emphasis upon the hearing and preaching of the word of God. Few Reformed and Presbyterian churches have weekly celebration of the eucharist; monthly eucharistic celebrations are more common. The level of education required for the Presbyterian or Reformed minister is traditionally high.
The Reformed churches generally adhere, with some variations, to a form of ecclesiastical polity in which the church is led by teaching elders (ordained pastors) and ruling elders or presbyters (lay persons) who are organized in various “courts”. The courts include the local church level (session or its equivalent), the regional church level (Presbytery, classis or an equivalent title), the wider regional or national level (the synod) and the national or highest autonomous level (general assembly or general synod). Synods consist of members of several presbyteries within a large area and in some cases constitute the final legislative body. Usually the general assembly or general synod is the supreme legislative and administrative body. Proponents of this governing structure in the 16th and 17th centuries did not regard it as an innovation but as a rediscovery of the apostolic model found in the New Testament. According to Calvin, the Primitive Church had four different offices: pastor, doctor or teacher, deacon, and presbyter or elder. He recognized, however, that other offices might be adopted.
The Reformed family has a broad spectrum. It has churches from the historic Reformation era, which now share much in common with other mainline Protestants. It also has churches from pietist and separation movements in the 18th and 19th centuries, whose recommitments to Scripture and the Reformed confessional documents continue to influence their values today. In the 20th century some were also influenced by the Evangelical and Pentecostal traditions. As a result there are four international groupings of the Reformed family.
The World Alliance of Reformed Churches (WARC) is the largest and oldest of these groupings. Its earliest predecessor was “The Alliance of the Reformed Churches throughout the World holding the Presbyterian System”, which was founded in London in 1875 by 21 Reformed and Presbyterian churches, mainly from Europe and North America. In 1949 the International Congregational Council was formally established. At Nairobi, Kenya, in 1970, the two organizations, Reformed and Congregational, came together in the new World Alliance of Reformed Churches. The constitution underlines that the Alliance is much more a family of churches than a confessional institution. Subscription to “any narrow and exclusive definition of faith and order” is not listed among the conditions for membership. Churches belong to the Alliance because they see in it an instrument of common witness and service. One of its purposes reads as follows: “To facilitate the contribution to the ecumenical movement of the experiences and insights which churches within this Alliance have been given in their history, and to share with churches of other traditions within that movement, and particularly in the World Council of Churches, in the discovery of forms of church life and practice which will enable the people of God more fully to understand and express God’s will for his people.” Leaders of member churches of the Alliance were among the pioneers of the WCC.
The recent history of WARC is characterized by some key public statements and initiatives on justice issues. In 1976 the Alliance published a study on the theological foundation of human rights and in 1982 it declared that apartheid is a sin and its moral and theological justification a heresy. In 1983 it asked the World Council of Churches to call on its members for a covenant on issues of justice, peace and the integrity of creation. The 23rd General Council at Debrecen, Hungary, in 1997, called for a process of recognition, education and confession concerning economic injustice and ecological destruction. In 2000 the Executive Committee of WARC made a declaration stating that homosexual persons ought not to be deprived of their human rights. In 2004 the 24th General Council at Accra, Ghana, adopted a confession of faith based on the conviction that “the integrity of our faith is at stake if we remain silent or refuse to act in the face of the current system of neoliberal economic globalization.”
Regional needs and growing membership have given rise to area organizations within the Alliance. Area Councils include WARC Europe, the Caribbean and North American Area (CANAAC), the Alliance of Presbyterian Churches in Latin America (AIPRAL), the Alliance of Reformed Churches in Africa (ARCA), the North East Asia Area (NEAAC). The central offices of the WARC are located in the Ecumenical Centre in Geneva. Programmes which emphasize theology, ecumenical relations, justice, partnership of women and men, cooperation and witness, youth, communication and finance are carried out from the general secretariat in Geneva.
The Reformed Ecumenical Council (REC) is a smaller grouping, mainly bringing together those churches whose adherence to the Reformed Confessions was a strongly held, defining principle. It began in 1946. Its founders believed that the adherence to the truth of these Confessions was the only ground for unity. In the six decades since, these churches have journeyed into a deeper understanding of ecumenicity, have qualified their demands for confessional unity, but retain confessional integrity as a high value. Along the way, some members would not accept these changes, and two other international groupings have emerged, the International Conference of Reformed Churches with a more doctrinaire emphasis, and the World Reformed Fellowship, which combines stricter doctrinal coherence with an evangelical mission emphasis. Today, the REC still captures the values of the pietist and separatist tradition. In its purpose and values statement of 1998, it highlights biblical and confessional integrity as a primary value. At the same time, the Council has expanded its relationships with other ecumenical organizations and Christian communions. This is most striking in its closer relations with the WARC. Besides direct conversations and some collaboration, 27 of its 39 members are also affiliated with the WARC. The REC has expanded its contact with the World Council of Churches. After sending observers to WCC meetings for decades, it has become a consultant to the Conference of World Mission and Evangelism, and has sent delegates to meetings of the Commission of Faith and Order.
REC membership is strongest in Africa and Asia, and relatively weaker in Europe, North America and South America. The Council has four permanent commissions: Human Relations, Theological Education and Interchange, Mission and Diakonia, and Youth and Christian Nurture. It speaks out where its members suffer hardship or discrimination and has supported specific peace processes that affect its members. Since 1996 the Council has addressed the issue of religious pluralism, exploring what it means to live with neighbours of other faiths. It also provides a forum where members consult and compare their relationships to their governments. In 1999 the REC urged its members to join in the Jubilee 2000 campaign for the forgiveness of international debt. The office of the REC is located in Grand Rapids, USA.
The WARC has a total of 218 member churches with more than 76 million members; 121 of its member churches belong also to the WCC. Its office is located in the Ecumenical Centre in Geneva. The REC groups 39 churches representing 12 million believers; 10 of its member churches are also members of the WCC. The REC has its office in Grand Rapids, USA.
Periodicals: WARC Update; Reformed World. REC News Exchange; REC Focus.
Websites: www.warc.ch; www.recweb.org
Member churches of the World Alliance of Reformed Churches
African Protestant Church (Cameroon)
Association of Evangelical Reformed Churches of Burkina Faso
Christian Reformed Church of Nigeria Church of Central Africa Presbyterian – Harare Synod Church of Central Africa Presbyterian – Malawi Synod Church of Christ in the Sudan among the Tiv (Nigeria)
Church of Jesus Christ in Madagascar
Dutch Reformed Church (South Africa)
Dutch Reformed Church in Botswana
Dutch Reformed Church – Synod of Central Africa (Zimbabwe)
Ethiopian Evangelical Church Mekane Yesus
Evangelical Church of Christ in Mozambique
Evangelical Church of Congo (Congo-Brazzaville)
Evangelical Church of the Republic of Niger
Evangelical Community in Congo (DRC) Evangelical Presbyterian Church, Ghana Evangelical Reformed Church of Angola
Evangelical Reformed Church of Christ (Nigeria)
Lesotho Evangelical Church
Peoples Church of Africa (South Africa)
Presbyterian Church in Cameroon Presbyterian Church of Cameroon Protestant Church of Algeria
Protestant Church of Christ the King (Central African Republic)
Presbyterian Church in Rwanda Presbyterian Church of East Africa (Kenya) Presbyterian Church of Equatorial Guinea Presbyterian Church of Ghana Presbyterian Church of Liberia
Presbyterian Church of Mauritius
Presbyterian Church of Mozambique Presbyterian Church of Nigeria
Presbyterian Church of Southern Africa
Presbyterian Church of the Sudan Presbyterian Community in Congo (DRC)
Presbyterian Community of Eastern Kasai (DRC)
Presbyterian Community of Kinshasa (DRC)
Presbyterian Community of Western Kasai (DRC)
(Reformed Presbyterian Community in Africa) Protestant Church of Réunion Island Protestant Church of Senegal Protestant Community of Shaba (DRC) Reformed Church in Africa (South Africa) Reformed Church in Southern Africa Reformed Church in Tunisia Reformed Church in Zambia Reformed Church in Zimbabwe Reformed Church of Christ in Nigeria Reformed Church of East Africa (Kenya) Reformed Community of Presbyterians (DRC) Reformed Presbyterian Church in Uganda United Church of Christ in Mozambique United Church of Christ in Nigeria United Church of Zambia United Congregational Church of Southern Africa (Mozambique) United Congregational Church of Southern Africa (Namibia Regional Council) United Congregational Church of Southern Africa (South Africa) United Congregational Church of Southern Africa (Zimbabwe) Uniting Reformed Church in Southern Africa Uniting Presbyterian Church in Southern Africa
Christian Church in Luwuk Banggai (Indonesia) Christian Church in Central Sulawesi (Indonesia)
Christian Church in Sulawesi (Indonesia)
Christian Church of Southern Sumatra (Indonesia)
Christian Church of Sumba (Indonesia) Christian Churches of Java (Indonesia)
Christian Evangelical Church in Bolang Mongondow (Indonesia)
Christian Evangelical Church in Halmahera (Indonesia) Christian Evangelical Church in Minahasa (Indonesia) Christian Evangelical Church in Timor (Indonesia) Christian Evangelical Church of Sangihe Talaud (Indonesia)
Church of Christ (India) Church of Christ in Japan
Church of Christ in Thailand Church of North India Church of South India
Congregational Federation of Australia Dutch Reformed Church in Sri Lanka
East Java Christian Church (Indonesia)
Evangelical Christian Church in Tanah Papua (Indonesia)
Evangelical Church in Kalimantan (Indonesia)
Evangelical Church of Maraland (India)
Hong Kong Council of the Church of Christ in China
Independent Presbyterian Church of Myanmar
Indonesian Christian Church Indonesian Protestant Church in Buol Toli-Toli Indonesian Protestant Church in Donggala Indonesian Protestant Church in Gorontalo Karo Batak Protestant Church (Indonesia) Korean Christian Church in Japan Mara Evangelical Church (Myanmar) Pasundan Christian Church (Indonesia)
Presbyterian Church in Korea (HapDongJeongTong) Presbyterian Church in Malaysia
Presbyterian Church in the Republic of Korea
Presbyterian Church in Singapore
Presbyterian Church in Taiwan Presbyterian Church of Aotearoa New Zealand
Presbyterian Church of India Presbyterian Church of Korea (DaeShin I)
Presbyterian Church of Korea (TongHap)
Presbytery of Lanka (Sri Lanka) Presbyterian Church of Myanmar
Presbyterian Church of Pakistan
Protestant Christian Church in Bali (Indonesia)
Protestant Church in the Moluccas (Indonesia)
Protestant Church in South-East Sulawesi (Indonesia)
Protestant Church in Timor Lorosa’e
Protestant Church in West Indonesia
Reformed Presbyterian Church, North East India
Sialkot Diocese of the Church of Pakistan Toraja Church (Indonesia)
Toraja Mamasa Church (Indonesia)
United Church of Christ in the Philippines
United Evangelical Church of Christ (Philippines)
Uniting Church in Australia
Church of Scotland (Trinidad & Tobago)
Dominican Evangelical Church (Dominican Rep.)
Guyana Congregational Union
Guyana Presbyterian Church
Presbyterian Church in Grenada
Presbyterian Church in Trinidad and Tobago
Presbyterian Church of Guyana
Presbyterian Reformed Church in Cuba United Church in Jamaica and Cayman Islands
Church of Lippe (Germany)
Church of Scotland (UK)
Evangelical Church of Czech Brethren
Evangelical Presbyterian Church of Portugal
Evangelical Reformed Church (Germany)
Evangelical-Reformed Church in Poland
Federation of Swiss Protestant Churches (Switzerland) Greek Evangelical Church
Malagasy Protestant Church (France)
Mission Covenant Church of Sweden
Presbyterian Church in Ireland (UK) Presbyterian Church of Africa (UK)
Presbyterian Church of Wales (UK) Protestant Church in the Netherlands
Protestant Reformed Church of Luxemburg H.B.
Reformed Alliance (Germany)
Reformed Christian Church in Croatia
Reformed Christian Church in Serbia & Montenegro Reformed Church in Austria
Reformed Church in Latvia Reformed Church in Slovenia
Reformed Church in Romania – Oradea District Reformed Church in Romania – Transylvania District Reformed Church of Alsace and Lorraine (France) Reformed Church of France Reformed Church of Hungary Reformed Church of Slovakia
Reformed Synod of Denmark
Remonstrant Brotherhood (NL) Spanish Evangelical Church
Synod of the Evangelical Reformed Church (Unitas Lithuaniae)
United Free Church of Scotland (UK) United Protestant Church of Belgium United Reformed Church (UK)
Union of Evangelical Congregational Churches in Bulgaria
Union of Welsh Independents (UK) Waldensian Evangelical Church (Italy)
Arab Evangelical Church of Sao Paolo (Brazil) Associate Reformed Presbyterian Church of Mexico
Christian Reformed Church of Brazil Evangelical Church of the River Plate (Argentina)
Reformed Churches in Argentina Evangelical Congregation Church (Argentina) Evangelical Presbyterian Church in Bolivia Evangelical Presbyterian Church of Costa Rica Evangelical Reformed Churches in Brazil Independent Presbyterian Church of Brazil National Evangelical Presbyterian Church of Guatemala National Presbyterian Church (Chile) National Presbyterian Church in Mexico, A.R. Presbyterian Church of Brazil Presbyterian Church of Chile
Presbyterian Church of Colombia
Presbyterian Church of Venezuela Presbyterian Evangelical Church in Chile Presbyterian Reformed Church of Mexico Reformed Calvinist Church of El Salvador Swiss Evangelical Church (Argentina) United Evangelical Church of Ecuador
United Presbyterian Church of Brazil Waldensian Evangelical Church of the River Plate (Uruguay)
Evangelical Church – Synod of the Nile (Egypt) National Evangelical Synod of Syria and Lebanon
National Evangelical Union of Lebanon St Andrew’s Scots Memorial Church (Holy Land)
Synod of the Evangelical Church in Iran Union of the Armenian Evangelical Churches in the Near East
Christian Reformed Church in North America Cumberland Presbyterian Church (USA) Cumberland Presbyterian Church in America (USA) Evangelical Presbyterian Church (USA)
Korean Presbyterian Church in America (USA)
Lithuanian Evangelical Reformed Church (USA)
Presbyterian Church (USA)
Presbyterian Church in Canada
Reformed Church in America (USA)
United Church of Canada
United Church of Christ (USA)
Congregational Christian Church of Niue Congregational Christian Church of Tuvalu Congregational Christian Church in American Samoa Evangelical Church in New Caledonia and Loyalty Islands
Kiribati Protestant Church
Maohi Protestant Church (French Polynesia)
Presbyterian Church of Vanuatu
Reformed Congregational Churches (Marshall Islands)
United Church in the Solomon Islands United Church of Christ – Congregational in the Marshall Islands
Member churches of the Reformed Ecumenical Council
Christian Reformed Church of East Africa (Uganda)
Christian Reformed Church of Nigeria
Church of Central Africa Presbyterian – Harare Synod
Church of Central Africa Presbyterian – Nkhoma Synod (Malawi)
Church of Central Africa Presbyterian – Zambia Synod
Church of Christ in the Sudan among the Tiv (Nigeria)
Dutch Reformed Church (South Africa)
Dutch Reformed Church in Africa (South Africa)
Nederduitsch Hervormde Kerk van Afrika (Dutch
Reformed Church of Africa, South Africa)
Presbyterian Church of Nigeria
Reformed Church in Africa (South Africa) Reformed Church in Mozambique
Reformed Church in Zambia Reformed Church in Zimbabwe Reformed Church of Christ in Nigeria
Reformed Church of East Africa (Kenya) Reformed Church of Swaziland Reformed Presbyterian Church in Uganda
Christian Church of Sumba (Indonesia)
Christian Reformed Churches in Australia Christian Reformed Church in Myanmar Christian Reformed Church in the Philippines Church of Toraja Mamasa (Indonesia) Dutch Reformed Church in Sri Lanka
Indonesian Christian Church (GKI) Javanese Christian Churches (Indonesia)
Presbyterian Church of India Presbyterian General Assembly (Reformed Church of Korea) Reformed Church in Japan Southernpart Sumatra Christian Church (Indonesia)
Toraja Church (Indonesia)
Christian Reformed Church of the Dominican Republic
Evangelical Reformed Church of France
Greek Evangelical Church Protestant Church in the Netherlands
Associate Reformed Presbyterian Church of Mexico
Christian Reformed Church in North America