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1 3 Sovereigns and 5 Empererors

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Yi3(2nd)zhan1(felt/flag) Jian4 乙旃建 to catch commanderies in W.Shandong. Other cities in Song's Qing (青州 CandE Shandong) fell as well, but the capital. Dongyang (东阳 Qingzhou, Shandong) was not caught and they withdrew when having no food and being ill. N. Wei forces stalled when sieging of Hulao, which was defended by the capable general Mao2De2zu3 毛德祖, but they did take Luoyang and Xuchang (许昌 Henan) intercepting the relief force for Hulao. In summer 423, Hulao fell. In 423 Si built a wall on the N. borders to stop Rouran attacks. 2) Ming2Yuan2Di4 明元帝 Tuoba Si4(succeed/heir) 拓拔嗣 409-423 asked direction Then came his oldest son, with mother Duguipin(Duguhun) who died when he was 12 then wet nurse Lady Dou took care of him. Started custom of honoring wet nurse as dowager.He was capable, doubling N.Wei’s size, starting NandS dynasties. He was a devout Taoist. CuiHao followed Kou Qianzhi. Rouran’s Yujiulu Datan attacked after hearing of Si’s death. After Bobo died he planned to attack Xia against BabaSong. So he showed his fierce temper by putting his face on the floor, but also was merciful not demoting him. DaxiJin, Pu3(general)Ji 普几, and himself took Chang’an, and Tongwan, and HelianChang and HelianDing fled to Shanggui. He took 3 of Bobo’s concubines. When HelianChang tried to catch Daxi and Qiuding at Anding, Wei4(surname)chi2(late) Juan4(feel for) 尉迟眷 and AnchiJia2(fly up/neck) 安迟颉 caught HelianChang. HelianDing took over. Tao gave sister Shiping to marry Chang. Daxi, humiliated he didn’t catch Chang tried to catch Ding but Ding caught him. Then Qiudun and TuobaLi left Chang’an and fled to Puban. Tao Anchi execute and replace Qiudun, his close official. Then because Rouran was harassing went to fight them. Sima Guang wrote in his Zizhi Tongjian that Tao was frugal, wise with money, a good judge of character, just, cruel with executions and regretted tem later.


In 429 with CuiHao’s support, did surprise attack on Rouran’s Yujiulu Datan, came close to capital but retreated, not defending against Wen of LiuSong. On way back caught Gaoche tribes and relocated them and Rouran S.of Gobi desert then N.Wei was rich in livestock and leather. When LiuSong and Xia jointly planned to attack N.Wei, Tao judged correctly Jin wouldn’t go N.of Yellow R. and sieged Xia’s H,Shegan’s 赫连社干, younger brother of H.Ding and H.Chang. Sent H.Chang to ask for its surrender, but it didn’t fall quickly. When Ding stopped engaing W.Qin to aid Pingliang, Tuxi Bi4(assist) 吐奚弼 surrounded and injured him so he fled to Shanggui. Tao punished Daxi by making him porter boy for a short time. Ding fled Shanggui, took W.Qin;s QifuMomo then went to take N.Liang but the khan of Tuyuhun, Murong Mu4(admire)gui 慕容慕_ caught him and traded him to Tao who executed him. After Yellow R. froze in 430, he retook Luoyang and Hulao. He forced Jin’s DaoYan4(virtuous man)zhi 到彦之 to flee and trapped troops at Huatai. Jin’s TanDaoji relief force came to late and Huatai fell. And the lands from last year were regained. Asked yearly to trade a son for a daughter to Jin’s Wen, but Wen ignored it. Made peace with Rouran b giving back caught generals. Made one of Bobo’s daughters empress and made oldest son TuobaHuang from dead consort Helan, heir. Then made period attacks on N. Yan catching its people. Put Helong (和龙 Jinzhou, Liaoning) under siege. Wanted to take N.Liang, but was told to wait until Mengxun died by Li Shun4(agreeable) 李顺. Emp FengHong’s son FengChong surrendered Liaoxi (辽西 Tangshan, Hebei) from fear of father and Tao sent brother TuobaJian4(healthy) 拓拔健 to save him from father’s siege. When Mengxun died only took his son JuquMujian’s sister as consort. When Chang tried to escape and rebel, he died fighting and Tao killed his brothers. Tao demanded FengHong’s son FengWangren冯王仁in addition to his daughter, and caught N.Wei amb. Hu1niu3yu2shi2men2 忽忸于什门, but Hong refused, so Tao raided N.Yan again. 91.

Took sister of Rouran Chilian Khan YujiuluWuti as consort and married a sister or cousin Princess Xihai, to him. When fighting Xiongnu rebel Bai2Long2 白龙, rescued from ambush by guard Hou2mo4chen2 Jian4 侯莫陈建. Then beat Bai and slaughtered his tribe. When FengHong offered son Wangren again, Tai disbelieving made a final assault but Gorguryeo rescued him and TuxiBi was drunk and couldn’t chase him so Tao temperorarily imprisoned and demoted Tuxi and his deputy E2(good/pretty)Qing1娥清. Then Tao demanded Hong from Gorguryeo’s Jangsu who sought peace and his brother Tuoba Pi1(big) 拓拔丕 told him not to fight. Later Jiangsu killed Hong. In 436, fought with Rouran again. Wen sent Liu Xi1(gay)bo2(uncle/earl) 刘熙伯 to talk trade of his daughter, but daughter died. Corruption bad because officials got no wages so Tao gave money to those who reported officials, but the people only blackmailed the officials to give them more. Married sister Wuwei to JuquMujian and J.Mujian sent heir Juqu Feng1 seal)tan2(platform) 沮渠封坛 to be hostage. Angry at Mujian’s sister and sister-in-law LadyLi who tried to poison Wuwei and that Mujian was allied with Rouran captured N.Liang against LiShou, but LiShou took bribes from Mujian so Tao had him suicide, Yujiulu Wuti made a fast attack on N.Wei’s Pingcheng but failed. Juqu Wuhui and Tufa Bao3zhou1 秃发保周, a son of TufaRutan, would try to hold N. Liang. Bu Baozhou suicided after many failures, and Wuhui had fled to Gaochang. Mujian was brought to Pingcheng as brother’in’law and continued as Prince of Hexi. N.Wei now ended 16 Kingdoms era. In 442, Tao received Taoist amulets from Kou Qianzhi. Made flags blue to make state Taoist. CuiHao told him to build Jinglun Palace 静轮宫 to be a quiet and tall place. Heir Huang said it was too expensive, but Tao disagreed. When fighting Rouran they met Yujiulu Wuti and Huang advised an immediate attack, but Tao waited and Yijiu fled. Then Tao gave Huang more authority under Qiu1mu4ling2Shou4丘穆陵寿, Cui, Zhang Li2(multitude/host) 张黎, and TuxiBi. 92.

Huang had those who had cattle give to those who didn’t and for them to pay for them by tilling the lands of the cattle owners and this increased farming greatly. Du2(only)gu1(alone) Jie2 (独孤□) accused by CuiHao for being jealous and also tried sabatoging Tao’s war plans against Rouran and then making his brother TuobaPi emp, so Tao killed him and Pi died from anxiety. Also accomplices Zhang1 Song1 (lofty) (张嵩) and Ku4(warehouse) Di2(surname) Lin2(near) 库狄邻were killed. 8 nephews of Tuyuhun khan Murong Mu4(admire)li4 yan2(prolong) 慕容慕利延 who killed brother brother Murong Wei3(latitude)shi4(era/world) 慕容纬世 surrendered to N.Wei and suggested Tao attack Tuyuhun. So Tao sent son Tuoba Fu2(prostrate)luo2(net) 拓拔伏罗 making MurongMuliyan flee to Bailan Mountains (白兰山 SW Qinghai). Then cousin Tuoba Na4(that) 拓拔那 made Muliyan flee west and take Yutian (Khotan). Tao sent Tu(vomit)wan Du4(degree)gui1(return) 吐万度归) to take Zhen1da2’s kingdom (extend) (真达) of Shanshan who didn’t let messengers reach the Xiyu kingdoms. From prophecy Wu would conquer Wei, Gaiwu started rebellion in Xingcheng (杏城 Yan'an, Shaanxi). Gai joined Liu Song and Xiongnu and Han joined Gai. Tao personally beat Gai’s ally Xue1 Yong3zong1(ancestor) 薛永宗. When Gai feld to the mtns, Tao slaughtered rebels without mercy. Believing monks worked with Gai, Tao killed them then CuiHao used this to further have Tao kill and destroy all monks, temples, and sutras. Huang tried to stop but all temples in N.Wei were destroyed, being a Buddhist raccoon dog. Thinking LiuSong’s Qing’s gov (青州 CandE Shandong) Du4(shut-off) Ji4(pure horse) 杜骥 would defect, Tao sent TuobaNa and TuobaRen2(kind) (拓拔仁, Tuoba Jian's son) to try to escort Du, and to attack LiuSong's Qing, Yan (兖州 W.Shandong) and Ji4(hope) (冀州 N.W.Shandong) Provinces. Tao hurt these provinces good but didn’t take them. In 446 Gai restrengthened at Xingcheng. 93.

Tao sent TuobaNa and TuobaRen to attack and Na caught Gai's two uncles. Na then made the two uncles assassinate Gai. In 447 Tao had JuquMujian and Consort Mujian suicide because he thought Mujian hid the treasures. Made general Chu1da4han4 Ba2(pull) 出大汗拔 the Prince of Shanshan making Shanshan part of his empire. He made Tuwan Dugui attack and force submission of many Xiyu kingdoms. Tao, with heir Huang attacked Rouran’s Chuluo Khan, Yujiulu Tuhezhen who eluded them. Na then attacked and defeated them heavily for several years. Accusing LiuSong for Gai’s rebellion, Tao seiged Xuanhu (悬瓠, Zhumadian, Henan) for 42 days but could not capture it, and he withdrew. Tao killed CuiHao and his clan for unknown reasons. Historian Bo Yang said maybe for infamy when CuiHao recorded that Daowu was a traitor. Also heir Huang made charges against Cui. In 450, LiuSong made a two-prong attack. Eastern prong against Qiaoao (Liaocheng, Shandong) and Huatai, and the western prong attacking Shancheng and Tong Pass. Tao had Qiaoao abandoned and Huaitai defended while he personally came to rescue Qiaoao and had heir Huang go North to defend against Rouran. LiuSong’s WangXuan2(profound)mo2(plan) 王玄谟 initially successful against Huaitai, then demanded supporters give each 800 pears then lost support and his forces collapsed. Then hearing this, general Liu3(willow)Wen2Jing3(scene) 柳文景 who caught Shancheng and Tong Pass getting ready to go to Guanzhong was withdrawn by Wen. Retaliating on LS’s northern provinces, Tao captured Xuanhu and Xiang4(neck/sum of money)cheng (项城Zhoukou, Henan) and pillaged his way to Shouyang. He advanced to Pengcheng but aimed to take LS’s capital Jiankang. His detachments slaughtered and burned the Huai River area. In 451 he arrived at Guabu (瓜步 Nanjing, Jiangsu), across the river from Jiankang and asked Wen to marry a daughter to his grandson in exchange for a daughter to marry Wen’s son LiuJun(at Pengcheng). 94.

Wen’s heir LiuShao favored it, but Jiang3 Dan4(profound/crystal clear) 江湛 opposed the proposal was refused. Worried of attack from the rear, Tao withdrew but insulted by LS’s Zang1(good) Zhi4(substance) 臧质(he gave Tao urine not wine), he put Xuyi (盱眙 Huai'an, Jiangsu) under siege and both sides suffered then he withdrew. Sima Guang described it: Tao laid South Yan, Xu, North Yan, Yu, Qing, and Ji Provinces to waste, covering over. The Wei beheaded and cut men in half and pierced and shook infants. Not even grass was left or trees for sparrows and half of Wei’s soldiers were dead. Tao was too fierce. Even at war, Tao made protocols of détente. Outside of Pengcheng he had Liujun trade wine and sugarcane for camels, mules, and coats. Later LiuJun traded oranges and gambling supplies for Tao’s blankets, salts, and pickled beans. Later Tao traded with Wen too. Heir Huang was over trusting and he managed farms and orchards and received profits from them. Heir Huang hated the eunuch ZongAi, and Zong accused Huang's associates Chou2(enemy)'ni4(dab/obstinate) Dao4sheng4(vigorous) 仇泥道盛 and Ren4(appoint/without matter) Ping2cheng2 任平城 of crimes, and they were executed. Many other associates were executed too and Huang from anxiety grew ill and died. Tao, who executed them, found out he was not guilty and deeply regretted. He only made Huang's son TuobaJun the Prince of Gaoyang─but then cancelled suggesting for TuobaJun to inherit the throne. ZongAi became anxious when Tao missed Huang and he assassinated Tao. Initially, a number of officials were going to make Emperor Taiwu's son Tuoba Han4(writing) 拓拔翰 emperor, but Zong didn’t like Tuoba Han, and so falsely issued orders in the name of Empress Helian to make another son of Tao’s, Tuoba Yu emperor, while putting Tuoba Han to death.

3) Tai4Wu3Di 4(太武帝) Tuoba Tao4(cover over) (拓拔焘 ) 424-452 (408452), aka Fo2(buddha)li2(racoon dog) 佛狸 Buddhist hater 95.

Then came his youngest of 6 sons. Mother was Consort Yujiulu (sister of Rouran’s Chilian Khan YujiuluWuti, who was part of peace making deal. Yu was in charge of Pingcheng while father counterattack LS and Huang fourth Rouran. ZongAi who punished Huang and his associates and assassinated Tao(Taiwu), installed Yu and put Tao’s oldest son, TuobaHan to death. Yu elevated Zongai making him PM. Yu knew he bypassed his older brothers and his nephew who by Confucian principles should have been emperor so he drained the treasury giving them rewards. He often frank much and entertained self going hunting. Zongai was arrogant and Yu planned to strip him but Zong sent official Jia Zhou 贾周 to assassinate him. Then officials DuguNi 独孤尼, Yuan He, BabaKehou 拔拔渴侯, and BuliuguLi overthrew and killed him and installed TuabaJun(12) as emperor Wencheng. 4) NanAnWang 南安王 Tuoba Yu 拓拔余 452 jaundiced Then came his nephew, Huang’s son and Tao’s(Taiwu) grandson who let empire relax and made laws lenient , letting the culture become. His mother Consort Yujiulu was the sister of the general Yujiulu Pi 郁久闾毗, member of Rouran royal house who had surrendered to Northern Wei. Taken with Tao on campaigns and called Prime Imperial Grandson 嫡皇孙. As emperor he often toured the provinces dredged on. The ones who installed him were made princes (DuguNi, YuanHe and Buliuguli). Other officials who helped the empire were honored but later killed in honor disputes (chief commanders,PMs, uncles and granduncle, and princes). As a buddhist he ended the prohibitions on Buddhists and performed *tonsure on 5 monks. But he also publicly received Taoist amulets per tradition. After Consort Li birthed heir TuobaHong, Jun had her suicide according to tradition. Fought Rouran’s Yujiulu Tuhezhen thorugh a snowstorm, dredged on (after WeichiJuan’s urging) but he eluded them. Meanwhile, generals Feng Chiwen 封敕文 and Pi Baozi 皮豹子 fought LS forces near the Ji River 济水(now Yellow River) nconclusively.


From CaoAn’s 曹安 (Marquess of Dingyang) advice, Jun launched a major attack on Tuyuhun's khan Murong Shiyin 慕容拾寅 (accepting commissions by both N.Wei and LS and showed off his wealth). The commanding generals were Yu’s brother Tuoba Xincheng 拓拔新成 and Li Hui 李惠 the Duke of Nan Commandery. However, while the armies captured a large number of livestock, Murong Shiyin was able to flee into the mountains, and the armies also suffered from illnesses. On one of his tours Jun attended a Gaoche tribal ceremony to sacrifice to the heavens, and the Gaoche people were pleased. In summer 465, Jun died and his son Tuoba Hong became Emperor Xianwen. Power soon fell into the hands of the official Yifu Hun, who tried to monopolize power and executed a number of other officials, including Buliugu Li, but in 466 was in turn ambushed by Jun’s wife Empress Dowager Feng. 5) WenCheng Di 文成帝 TuobaJun4(dredge) 拓拔浚452-465 appeased civilization Then came Jun’s oldest son. His mother was Consort Li, who was captured in war and had become a concubine of Tuoba Ren 拓拔仁, a distant relative of Jun, who was executed in 453 after having been accused of crimes then she became Jun’s concubine and later suicided according to tradition. Became emperor at age 11 when Jun died. Feng was Dowager. Official Yifu Hun soon was powerful and he killed many officials, including YangBaoping 杨保平, JiaAiren 贾爱仁, and ZhangTiandu 张天度, QiumulingDuohou 丘穆陵多侯, TuobaYu 拓拔郁, and Jun’s PM BuliuguLi. Feng started a coup and had Yifu arrested and executed and she became regent. Feng used JiaXiu 贾秀, Gao Yun, and Gao Lu 高闾 and brother FengXi 冯熙 as her assistants. When Qianfei of LS was assassinated,, uncle Ming was made Emperor in Jiankang and his brother LiuZixun made emperor in Xunyang (寻阳 Jiujiang, Jiangxi). Ming defeated and executed LiuZixun in 466. Then LS general XueAndu 薛安都, Bi Zhongjing 毕


众敬 the governor of Yan Province (兖州 W.Shandong) and Chang Zhenqi 常珍奇 the governor of Ru'nan Commandery (汝南 Zhumadian, Henan) afraid of Ming because of allegiance to LiuZiXun joined N.Wei. Feng sent general Weichi Yuan 尉迟元 to accept their surrenders and to secure area north of Huai. Weichi defeated 2 attempts of Ming to recapture area. She sent Murong Baiyao 慕容白曜 to attack and try to capture LS's Qing (青州 CandE Shandong) and Ji (冀州 NW Shandong) which were cutoff from LS after Xue’s defection and provinces became Nwei’s. Xianwen’s concubine, Consort Li, a daughter of his uncle LiHui 李惠- bore his oldest child TuobaHong and Feng raised him then returned powers to Xianwen(13). Xianwen was hardworking and just in rewards and punishments. He promoted honest and demoted corrupt, being great. He studied religions, trying to be presented to culture. Hong made heir then Li suicided and was missed by all. Angry that MurongMaiyao flattered YifuHun while in power, Xianwen had him and his son Murong Ruyi 慕容如意 put to death. Dowager Feng took Li Yi 李奕 as her lover. Accusations with LiYi’s brother, LiFu and official LiXin a close friend made Feng assassinate Xianwen in vengeance after he chose to become a retired emperor, and never made an empress BUT NOT expanding. Xiaowen took throne at age 4 and Feng became regent. 6) XianWenDi (present)(culture) TuobaHong 拓拔弘(great/expand) 466-471 equal Then came his son who caused sinicization, filial to culture, making people wear Han clothes, speak the language and have inter-racial marriage. Moved capital from Pingcheng to Luoyang wanting original greatness. Passive defense against Rouran. However, Pingcheng kept its military elite and XIanbei sthnicity while Luoyang became sinicized. Then heir Yuan Xun, and his distant uncle Yuan Yi 元颐 each created a Xianbei rebellion. By 497, Xiaowen destroyed their rebellions and had YuanXun suicide. Xiaowen adopted Jin social stratification causing the 98.

incompetent nobles to have power and capable men of low birth not being able to advance in his government. His adoption of Han culture and arts caused too much spending. By the time of his grandson Emperor Xiaoming, N. Wei was in substantial upheaval due to agrarian revolts, and by 534 had been divided into two halves, each of which would soon be taken over by warlords. One of Xiaowen's enduring legacies was the establishment of the equal-field system in China, a system of government-allotted land that would last until the An Shi Rebellion in the mid Tang Dynasty (618-907). Feng literate and good in math and appointed eunuchs. She executed Xiaowen’s grandfather LiHui’s clan fearful of takeover. She built a tomb at Fang Mountain (方山), near Pingcheng. A Buddhist monk Faxiu 法秀 started a rebellion in Pincheng almost having all Buddhists but Feng refused it. She promoted lovers Wang Rui 王□ and Li Chong 李冲. After general Xiao Daocheng usurped LS throne and established S. Qi as its emperor Gao, NWei commissioned Liu Chang 刘昶 a former LS prince to reestablish LS, which failed. Commisioned GaoLu to write criminal code (with 832 sections, 16 of them prescribing clan-slaughter as penalty, 235 of them prescribing personal death penalty). GaoLu also introduced constellation creation and pop music from Korea. When Xianwen grew in power she thought of deposing him for his brother Tuoba Xi 拓拔禧. They grew close later when he took her brother Fengxi’s daughters as concubines. Later married daughter Feng Qing as empress. After Xiaowen’s oldest son TuobaXun born, Consort Lin suicided and Feng raised him. When Feng died, he fasted 5 days and had a 3yr mourning period(against Wen of Han). After Feng died he continued Sinicization and Confucianization, demoting princes to dukes. Moved capital from Pingcheng to Luoyang against officials and the rain and had general Yuwen Fu 宇文福 set up a large livestock grazing zone at Heyang (河阳 Jiaozuo and Xinxiang, Henan).


He fought the S.QI sieging Shouyang (寿阳 Lu'an, Anhui) and Yiyang (义阳 Xinyang, Henan) ineffectually. He ordered that offices be given by clan position not abilities against official Li Chong. Honored 8 Xianbei clans: 1) Mu 穆 (Qiumuling) 2) Lu 陆 (Buliugu) 3) He 贺 (Helai) 4) Liu 刘 (Dugu) 5) Lou 楼 (Helou) 6) Yu 于 (Wuniuyu) 7) Xi 奚 (Daxi) 8) Yu 尉 (Yuchi) and 5 Han clans: 1) Lu 卢 2) Cui 崔 3) Zheng 郑 4) Wang 王 5) Li 李. He again fought S.Qi and took Wancheng (宛城 Nanyang, Henan) and Xinye (新野 Nanyang). Heir Yuanxun went to Pencheng protesting Han culure and Luoyang’s hot temperature and Xianwen had him suicide. Then made son Yuan Ke heir. Undercover distant uncle Yu Yi (元颐) revealed Mu Tai 穆泰 and Lu Rui’s 陆□ plot then XiaoWen had his cousin Yuan Cheng 元澄 to kill MuTai and LuRui. XiaoWen made FengRun empress. When Gao, YuanKe’s mother died, it was thought that Feng secretly poisoned him to raise YuanKe. XiaoWen fought S.Q’s Wancheng (宛城 Nanyang, Henan) and Xinye (新野Nanyang) indecisively. Li Chong and Li Biao in the capital Luoyang, and Li Chong, after putting Li Biao under arrest, died in anger. Because of this and S.Qi’s Ming dying in 498, Xiaowen stopped fighting S.Qi out of pity. While he was sick he trusted matters to his brother YuanXie and Feng had an affair with Gao Pusa 高菩萨. She also forced Xiaowen’s sister Pincheng whose husband Liu Chengxu (刘承绪, Liu Chang's son) died, to marry her brother Feng Su 冯夙 but she fled Xiaowen’s camp and accused her of adultery. After interrogating Feng and her assistant Shuang Meng 双蒙Xiaowen told both YuanKe and FengRun he never wanted to see them again. While repelling and defeating a retaliation by S.Qi’s general ChenXianda 陈显达 he died. By XiaoWen’s will Feng suicided. 7) Xiao4(filial) Wen(culture) Di 孝文帝 Yuan2 Hong2(great)元宏471-499 believed hans then came his second son who replaced YuanXun who rebelled Pincheng and later


ordered to suicide.

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