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1 3 Sovereigns and 5 Empererors

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[4]Chieftains of Tiefu Tribe (260-391) bravely fighting jingoism (7) First was the 2nd son of one of the last Xiongnu chanyus, Yu2(at)fu2 (support)luo2(sieve) 于扶罗, making go the modesty.. He was the uncle of the Han Zhao ruler Liu Yuan. 1) Liu2Qu4bei1(modest) 刘去卑 Tiefu chieftain (260-272). Right Prince of the S. Xiong1nu2. (weishu is the left virtuous king). Nan2Xiong1Nu2Zhi1You4 Xian2Wang2 南匈奴之右贤王(魏书作左贤王)abscond bashfulness Then one with a mandatehoisted himself whereupon. 2) Liu2 Gao4(imperial mandate)sheng1(hoist)yuan2(whereupon) 刘诰升爰 272-309 chair grabber Then one with this strength was vigorous like a tiger.3) Liu2 Hu3(tiger/vigorous) 刘虎 early 4th century (309- 341)charging beast Then this became his affairpermanently4) Liu2 Wu4(affair)heng2(permanent) 刘务恒 341-356 affair everlasting Then because of this one tried to shut out the mean/vulgarness at the head. 5) Liu2 E4(shut)lou4(mean) tou2(head) 刘阏陋头 356-358 break-up Then after this one came who informed all not to play with/entreat things. 5) Liu2Xi1(all/be informed of)wu4(do not)qi2(play/entreat) 刘悉勿祈 358-359 admonisher And to do this came a protectingcelestial one. 7) Liu2 Wei4(protect)chen2(celestial) 刘卫辰 359-391 celestial bodyguard
[5] Chieftains of Yuwen Tribe (late-3rd century-345) First was the universal one noone could grow to be like. 76.

1) Yu3(universe)Wen2 Mo4(no one)huai2(chinese scholar tree) 宇文莫槐 late 3rd century-293 So one came who to the universal he returned by the stir of his foot. 2) Yu3wen2 Pu3(universal)hui2 宇文普回 or Yuwen Pu Bo1(stir with hand/foot) 宇文普拨 293-late 3rd century He succeeded his father. He was married to the daughter of Tuoba leader Tuoba Chuo. But the stirring of the mound was not industrious. 3) Yu3wen2 Qiu1(mound)buqin2 (indutrious) 宇文丘不勤 late 3rd century He succeeded his father. In 302, YuwenMogui dispatched a force to fight the Xianbei Murong Hui so that noone could have the elongated pointed jade.. 4) Yu3wen2 Mo4gui4(elongated, pointed jade) 宇文莫圭 late 3rd century (299?)- early 4th century (302?) Informed of this came a single government official. 5) Yu3wen2 Xi2(all/be informed of)du2(only/single)guan1(government official) 宇文悉独官 (early 4th century-333). He came after his father Yuwen Xunniyan. In 325, ShiLe added Qidegui. Qidegui sent troops to help ShiLe in attacking MurongHui. MurongHui then sent his heir MurongHuang with the Tuoba and the Duan tribes. MurongHui entered as the right wing, MurongRen was left wing. Qidegui guarded the river (now Xar moron River). Qidegui's nephew Yuwen Xibaxiong resisted Ren. Ren killed Xibaxiong, while winning attacks against Qidegui with Huang, breaking Qidegui's forces. Qidegui abandoned his army to run away. Huang and Ren entered his territory and sent troops to pursue Qidegui. In 333 he was killed by YuwenYidougui, who succeeded him, as if begging to get his post taken 6) Yu3wen2 Qi3(beg)De(get)gui1(give a post to sb.) 宇文乞得归 early 3rd century - 333 Then one came who took the last outstanding beans and returned them. 7) Yu3wen2 Yi4 (outstanding)dou4(beans)gui1(return) 宇文逸豆归 333-345 bail-out
[6] Dukes of Liaoxi 303-338 competing judging celestials First came one whose affairs were not to be of this world. 77.

1) Duan4(section) Wu4(affair)wu4(don't) chen2(this world) 段务勿尘 303-310 or 311 godly Because of this one came who diseased/hated the land and famly dependents. 2) Duan4 Ji2(disease/hate)lu4(land)juan4(family dependent) 段疾陆眷 310 or 311 – 318 hated Then one came who experienced recovery from the celestials. 3) Duan4 She4(experience)Fu4(recover) chen2(celestial) 段涉复辰 318 judgement Then one wanted to fight and be a match to an emperor. 4) Duan4 Pi3( be a match to )Di1 段匹□ 318-321 competitive But at the last stage he drank unrestrainedly 5) Duan4 Mo4 (last stage)pei1(spirits) 段末318-325 gorged Then God bit the next. 6) Duan4 Ya2(tooth) 段牙 325 jawed So then then next ran far away. 7) Duan4 Liao2(far away) 段辽 326-338 afar bolted
[7] Chieftains, Dukes and Kings of Chouchi, Wuxing and Yinping A) First Phase of Chouchi (184-371) (12) ascended halted declined First came one who soared. He was a chief of White Neck Di (白項氐) in SE Gansu.1) Yang2(poplar) Teng2(soar) 杨腾 184-210 bird flyer Then his colt came ready to soar. 2) Yang2 Ju1(colt) 杨驹 210-230 beaslty jumper So the colt birthed ten million. paid tribute to CaoWei. Was made a Prince. 3) Yang2 Qian1wan4(ten million) 杨千万 230-263 copious colts Then a flying dragon came. paid tribute to CaoWei. Was made a Prince. Made center in Lueyang 4) Yang2 Fei1(fly)long2 (dragon) 杨飞龙 263-296 circling creature And then he luxuriantly searched. Independent king until the 4th century. 5) Yang2 Mao4 (luxuriant)sou1 (search) 杨茂搜 296 - 317 bounteously analyzed But one came who found it difficult to be equal. The Chouchi troops often plundered the Central Plains to the east and took people there. The troops of E.Jin and F.Zhao took Chouchi’s people. In 322 Yang Nandi was beat by F.Zhao and degraded to Prince of Wudu 武都王 and Duke of Chouchi 仇池公. 78.

6) Yang2 Nandi2(equal) 难敌 317-334 arduously gauged. Then one came who was resolute to impress the public with his strength. Had internal struggles 7) Yang2 Yi4(resolute) Yang Yi, aka Wei1 (impressive) gong1(public) 威公334-337 compulsive Then failing this one came only needing to have a rudimentary life. Had internal struggles 8) Yang2 Chu1(rudimentary) 337-355 (370-319 BCE)asked humbleness Then one came wanting the country to be transformed and connected . Had internal struggles. 9) Yang2 Guo2(country) () style name Gai3(transform)zhi1 (connect) 改之355-356 assembled Then one who thought he was handsome believed he should take the throne. 10) Yang2 Jun4(handsome) 356-360 daring---This continued to the next generation. Had internal struggles 11) Yang2 Shi4 (generation) 360-370 another joined Then the next was usurped for his arrogance. FuJian ruler of F.Qin attacked Chouchi, captured the ruler YangCuan 楊篡. Had internal struggles. 12) Yang2 Cuan4(usurp/seige) 370-371 annexed
B) Second Phase of Chouchi 385-473 (9) controlled helping emperors: easily giving-in Then came a great-grandson of YangMaosou and grandson of FuJiàn. He fixed the Chouchi kingdom in 385 with the capital at Licheng (歷城). 1) Wu3Wang2 武王 Yang Ding4(fixed) 385-394 installed Then his younger brother benefited the Chouchi, conquering the region Liangzhou (梁州) at the upper course of the Han River, and declared himself a governor, being a character, for the Jin Dynasty. Efforts to occupy the territory of Sichuan failed, but Chouchi controlled a great part, fourishing, of E. Gansu and S. Shaanxi. 2) Hui4(benefit) Wen2(character) Wang2 惠文王 Yang2 Sheng4(flourishing) 杨盛 394-425 controlled abundantly After this one who wanted his filialty to be clear and profound came.3) Xiao4(filial) Zhao1(clear) Wang2孝昭王 Yang2 Xuan2 (profound) 杨玄 425-429 devoted 79.

So one came wanting to protect his ancestors. 4) Yang2 Bao3(protect)zong1(ancestor) 杨保宗 429 and 443 junior Then one came finding this difficult to manage.5) Yang2 Nan (difficult) dang4(manage) 杨难当 429-441 annoyed boss+1 Then it became necessary to protect against the blazing. 6) Yang2 Bao3 (protect) chi4(ablaze) 杨保炽 442-443 aleviate Then the lords of Chouchi became puppet rulers controlled by the N.Wei. Covered up was their culture. There were 5 realms of F. andL.Chouchi (Qianchouchi 前仇池, Houchouchi 後仇池, Yinping 陰平, Wudu 武都, and Wuxing 武興). 7) Yang2 Wen2(covered up)De2(culture) 杨文德 443-454 arrested aesthetic+1 Then the next basically joined 8) Yang2 Yuan2(basic)he(join) 杨元和 455-466 assuredly acclimated Then the next like a monk inherited. 9) Yang2 Seng1(monk)Si4(inherit) 杨僧嗣 466-473 given
[8] Kings of Wuxing 473-553 (7) discussing grammatical characteristics: establishing First came one whose writing was limited. 1) Yang2 Wen2(writing)du4(limited) 杨文度 473-477 dyslexic Then one came whose writing was grander. 2) Yang2 Wen2(writing)hong2(grand) 杨文弘 477-482 enhanced Then a person of new talent arrived. 3) Yang2 Hou4qi3(people of talent) 杨后起 482-486 distinguished They wanted to fix or install by gathering everything and making a new start. 4) An1(fix/install) Wang 安王 Yang2Ji2(gather)Shi3 (start) 杨集始 486-503 binding actuator In the end the next carried on like the first ancestor did. 5) Yang2 Shao4(carry on)xian1(first/ancestor) 杨绍先 503-506 continued+belittled hampering 534-535 adhere Believing this would be wise 6) Yang2 Zhi4hui4 (wisdom) 杨智慧 535-545 acurately judged Going back to the original one came who refuted anything irregular. 7) Yang2 Pi4(refute)xie2(irregular) 杨辟邪 545-553 held


[9] Kings of Yinping 477- mid 6thC. Declining glossy gardenia First came a widely popular one. 1) Yang2 Guang3xiang1 (popular) 杨广香 477-483 famous Then the next was shining because of this. 2) Yang2 Jiong3(shining) 杨炯 483-495 acquired brilliance Being so bright the next one worshipped them as ancestors. 3) Yang2 Chong2(worship)zu3(ancestor) 杨崇祖 495-502 gesticulated The next was like the eldest brother’s second growth of plants, not equaling the past emperors. 4) Yang2 Meng4(eldest brother) sun1(2nd growth of plants) 杨孟孙 before 502-511 inferior The next decided and calm because he knew the first was best. 5) Yang2 Ding4(calm/decide) 杨定 511- ?
[10] Chieftains of Tuoba Tribe 219-377 (as Kings of Dai 305-377) bellowing asking involvement :designating First came one chosen by God being the first. He made the best effort even with the minute/tiny. 1) Shen2 Yuan2(first) Wang2 神元王 Tuo4(develop)Ba2(surpass) Li4 (make best effort) Wei1(minute/tiny) 拓拔力微 219-277 exhalted handicapped Then came his son who after knowing the small and their regulations was like an all-knowing deer jumping around with his brothers Tuoba Shamohan, Tuoba Chuo, and TuobaLuguan. 2) Zhang1 (regulations)Wang2 章王 Tuoba Xi1 (all/ to know) Lu4 (deer) 拓拔悉鹿 277-286 intelligent Then came his younger brother. In 293 Chieftain Yuwen Mohuai is killed by his younger brother Yuwen Pubo, who then usurps the throne. Chuo married his daughter to Pubo's son YuwenQiubuqin. Then 293 Chuo dies, drawing even so as to make space for the next. 3) Ping2( drawed even with) Wang2 平王 Tuoba Chuo4(spacious) 拓拔绰 286-293 grafted Then came his nephew, the son of TuobaSha1Mo4 (desert/ indifferent) han4(sweat) 拓跋沙漠汗. Having everything and being from the desert, he considered what he didn’t have He was the brother of TuobaYituo and TuobaYilu. 81.

4) Si1(think/consider) Wang2 思王 Tuoba Fu2( not) 拓拔弗 293-294 acknowledge(+0: 1 KING; +1: 1 OF W.AREA and CONTINUING THROUGH BY 2 OF C. AREA) Then came his uncle, the son of Liwei, the younger brother of ShaMo. In 295 Luguan divided the land into 3 areas: 1) a vast tract going west from White Mountain (NE of Zhangjiakou), to Dai (Datong, Shanxi); 2) an E. area from Shengle (S. of Hohhot) and beyond; 3) a C. area, which included a N. Shanxi region. Luguan would control the E. area. His nephews Tuoba Yilu was chieftain of the West, and Tuoba Yituo was chieftainof the central areas. Thus he clearly gave a salaries to the officers for all their hardwork. 5) Zhao1(clear) Wang2 昭王 Tuoba Lu4(salary) Guan1(officer) 拓拔禄官 294-307 agents credited Then came a son of Sha1mo4 and the brother of TuobaYilu and TuobaFu. He was chief of C. area. In 297 he passed through Outer Mongolia and conquered 30 territories and gained the support of his own Xianbei people and various Han people, being a solemn ruler. Yituo interjected and rescued SimaTeng, governor Jin’s Bing Province from the Xiongnu. In 304, Yituo with Yilu, joined with the Jin armies and defeated HanZhao’s Liu Yuan. In 305, Yituo died, and was succeeded by his son Tuoba Pugen as chief of the C. Tuoba territory. 6) Mu4 (solemn) Wang2 穆王(C. AREA) Tuoba Yi1(interj<>) Tuo 拓拔猗 ( without ) 295-305 augustedly jostled Then came the other son of Sha1mo4Han4 拓跋沙漠汗 and the brother of Yituo and TuobaFu. Yilu would become chief of the W. area. He beat the Xiongnu and Wuhan to the west. He solemnly gained support of the Han, Wuhan and his own Xianbei. . In 304, Yilu, with Yituo joined Jin and defeated LiuYuan, interjecting . The name Dai came when Yilu became the Duke of Dai 代公, given a surname, and was given 5 commanderies by the W. Jin in 310 as a reward for helping LiuKun1(jade) 刘琨, the gov. of Bingzhou (并州 Shanxi province) fight the Xiongnu Han state. In 315 Jin made it a principality. 82.

Yilu helped LiuKun capture Jinyang (晋阳 Taiyuan, Shanxi) from LiuYao. Yilu made his youngest son Tuoba Bi4(compare)yan2 (prolong) 拓跋比延 heir instead of his eldest son Tuoba Liu4(six) Xiu1 (fix) 拓跋六修. So there was a dispute. He was succeeded by Tuoba Pugen in 316, after LiuXiu killed him. 7) Mu4(solemn) Wang2 穆王W.AREA)Tuoba Yi1(inter<>) Lu2(surname) 拓拔猗卢 295-316 behavior advancing He was the chief of the C. Tuoba territory from 305 to 316, and in 316 ruled as prince of the Tuoba Dai as the supreme chief. He was the son of Tuoba Yituo, and the brother of Tuoba Heru and Tuoba Gena. In 305, he succeeded his father Tuoba Yituo, as the chief of the C. Tuoba territory, under his uncle Tuoba Yilu, then the Duke of Dai. In 316, Tuoba Yilu, then carrying the title the Prince of Dai, was killed by his son Tuoba Liu4xiu1(fix) 拓跋六修. Having a universal cause, Pugen heard of the news and attacked TuobaLiuxiu and killed him, and succeeded Yilu as the Prince of Dai. After Yilu died many Han and Wuhuan left Dai and allied with the Jin official Liu Kun1(jade) 刘琨. Tuoba Pugen died several months later and was succeeded by his infant son, who did not have (and never got) a name. 8) Tuo4ba2Pu3(universal) Gen1(cause) 拓拔普根(C.AREA305-316)(DAI316) judging Then came the son of Tuoba Fu, and the father of TuobaYihuai and Tuoba Shiyijian. In 310, TuobaYulu was ordered by Tuoba Yilu to assist Liu2Kun1(jade) 刘琨, gov. of Bingzhou (并州 Shanxi province) to fight the Xiongnu Tiefu chief Liu Hu. In 316 Yulu became the Prince of Dai upon the death of Tuoba Pugen's unnamed infant son. In 318, he defeated the Tiefu chief Liu Hu and took some territory from the Wusun, making level the culture. In 321 he was killed in a coup d'etat, strongly restrained, launched by his cousin Tuoba Heru, who succeeded him as the Prince of Dai. 9) Ping2 ( be on a par) Wen2(culture) Wang2平文王 Tuo4ba2 Yu4(strongly fragrant) Luu4(restrain) 拓拔郁律 316-321 exacting He was the son of Tuoba Yituo, and the brother of Tuoba Pugen and Tuoba Gena. 83.

In 321, when his cousin TuobaYulu was the Prince of Dai, Tuoba Heru launched a coup d'etat against his cousin, killing TuobaYulu and becoming the Prince of Dai himself, He benefited himself and congratulated himself. 10) Hui4(favour/benefit/kindness) Wang2 惠王 Tuoba He4(congratulate) Ru4 拓拔贺 321-325 devious The next one was in a molten state of a knot trying to break himself free to have a good name because of that case. 11) Yang2(molten) Wang2 炀王 Tuoba He(Ge1)(knot) Na(in that case) 拓拔纥那 325-329 destitute He was the son of Tuoba Yulu and the nephew of Tuoba Gena. When Tuoba Gena was in his first reign as the Prince of Dai, Tuoba Yihuai lived with his maternal uncle's father He4(congratulate)lan2(orchid) Ai3(friendly)tou2 (head) (贺兰蔼头) of the Helan tribe. He was stronger than the last, being able to see the scholar tree(be wise)12) Lie4(strong) Wang2 烈王 Tuoba Yi4(slight corneal capacity) Huai2(Chinese scholar tree) 拓拔翳槐 329-335 familiarized Then again came his uncle who melted through the knot and in that case became king again. 13) Yang2(molten) Wang2 炀王 Tuoba He(Ge1)(knot) Na(in that case) 拓拔纥那 335-337 broke-free But his nephew came again being intense enough with the capacity to climb the tree and be taller. 14) Lie4(intense) Wang2 烈王 Tuoba Yi4(slight corneal capacity) Huai2(Chinese scholar tree) 拓拔翳槐 337-338 alpine

He was the son of TuobaYu4Lu4 拓跋郁律 and the younger brother of TuobaYi4Huai2 拓跋翳槐.In 340 he moved the capital to Shengle (盛乐Holingol county 和林格尔 of Hohhot, Inner Mongolia). Dai was conquered by the F. Qin His wife was a princess of F.Yan. His grandson Tuoba Gui would go on to found the N. Wei Dynasty. He was clear to achieve. He was variegated(moved) like a bird helping the ruler so that later he could be strengthened. 14) Zhao1(clear) Cheng2(achieve) Wang2 昭成王 TuobaShi2(variegated)Yi4 (bird/assist a ruler) Jian4 (strengthen) 拓拔什翼健 338-376 (320-376) clambering heirs 84.

Northern and Southern Dynasties
[1]Bei Northern Wei Dynasty 386-535 First was grandson of TuobaShiyijian. Father was TuobaShi, heir to Shiyijian. Shi died when injured protecting Shiyijian from assassination by general Baba Jin 拔拔斤. Mother was Helian daughter of Dai vassal Helian Yegan 贺兰野干. After F.Qin’s fall in he reestd. Dai. He was a vassal of F.Yan until he defeated M.Bao in 397 and declared himself emperor, he also stopped L.Qin’s attack making him be on the path of war. He was brilliant but cruel and arbitrary, esp. when old. When F. Qin launched a major attack against Dai Shiyijian fled his capital Yunzhong (云中 Hohhot, Inner Mongolia), but returned to Yunzhong after F. Qin retreated. Then his nephew Tuoba Jin 拓拔斤 convinced oldest surviving son Tuoba Shijun 拓拔□君 that he wanted to kill the F.Yan Princess’s son who Shiyijian was to make heir. Shijun then ambushed his fathers and brothers and killed them. Then F.Qin took Yunzhong with no fight. Gui’s mother Hleian fled to HelanNa 贺兰讷, Yegan’s brother and successor. FuJian let Gui stay in Yunshong to be a Dai Prince, but divided Dai into 2 controlled by 2 Xiongnu chiefs Liu Kuren 刘库仁 and Liu Weichen 刘卫辰. Gui with mother Helian lived with Kuren’s group. When aiding Fupi against Chui, Kuren was killed by F.Yan noble Muyu Chang 慕舆常 and was replaced by Liu Toujuan (刘头眷). Toujuan was killed by Kuren’s son, Liu Xian 刘显 who took over. Xian viewed Gui as a threat, but his officers Balie Liujuan 拔列六眷)and Qiumuling Chong 丘穆陵崇 escorted Gui to his uncle Helian Na. In 386 Gui made capital Shengle (盛乐 Hohhot, Inner Mongolia). He encouraged agriculture and changed name to N.Wei. When Gui’s youngest uncle TuobaKuduo 拓拔窟咄 used W.Yan and LiuXian’s support to take throne, Gui fled to his maternal uncle Helan’s tribe. Gui had L.Yan’s Chui send M.Lin who beat Kuduo who was killed by Liu Weichen. Gui refused Chui’s 85.

weak titles as W.Chanyu and P.of Shangu. He sent cousin Tuoba Yi To give tribute and to spy who said heir L.Yan and M.Bao was weak. HelanRangan 贺兰染干 wanted to kill brother HelanNa and they battled each other. Gui asked L.Yan for aid and M.Lin took Rangan prisoner and wanted to detain Gui, but Chui refused. When Gui sent brother TuobaGu to offer tribute, Gu was detained and to be reansomed by horses. Gui refused, broke relations with L.Yan and had relations with W.Yan instead. When Rouran, a vassal wouldn’t submit Gui tried, but failed to conquer it making it a trouble for all of N.Wei’s dynasty. LiuWenchen sent his son Liu Zhilidi 刘直力□ to attack Gui’s small army, but Gui won then Gui caught his capital Yueba (悦拔 Ordos, Inner Mongolia) and forced Wenchen and Liu Zhilidi to flee. Soon Wenchen was killed by his subordinates and Zhilidi was captured. Gui annexed his land and slaughtered 5000 of his people. But Wenchen’s son LiuBoBo fled to the Xuegan 薛干 tribe where chief Tai Xifu 太悉伏 refuded to give him to N.Wei. Bobo would marry the daughter of L.Qin's vassal Mo Yigan 没奕干 and depend on him. Gui slaughtered much of Xifu’s people but Xifu fled. When Chui attacked M.Yong of W.Yan and Yong asked for aid, Gui sent cousin TuobaQian 拓拔虔and general YuYue 庾岳 only to distract L.Yan. M.Yong’s capital Zhangzi (长子,Changzhi, Shanxi) fell and W.Yan was annexed to L.Yan. In 395, M.Bao led M.Nong and M.Lin with 80,000 against Gui, so Gui fled Shengle and went across Yellow R. N.Wei’s scouts intercepted L.Yan’s messengers saying Chui died. Lin’s followers tried to start a coup, then they retreated but Gui killed most of them at Battle of Canhe. Chui avenged and killed TuobaQian, but got sick and died. Gui then defeated Nong at Bing Province(CandNShanxi). Gui caught all except Zhongshan, Xindu and Yecheng. Then took Xindu, then retreated due to rebel at Shengle and Bao attacked but loss to Gui. Lin rebelled, so Bao fled to Longcheng(Jinzhou,Hebei). However, Bao’s nephew M.Xiang慕容详held onto Zhongshan against Gui. Xiang killed TuobaGu to be Emp, then Lin killed Xiang to be Emp 86.

so Gui took Zhongshan while people resisted when he killed

Clans against Gu. A plague killed half of Gui’s men. Built highway across Taihang mountains. Let left Tuoba Yi and Suhe Ba 素和跋 command Yecheng after De went to Huatai to start S.Yan.He moved capital to Pingcheng and estd. Weights and measures and Chinese and Xianbei holidays. In 399, Gui became Emp and said he came from the Yellow Emp. Killed Gaoche of the Gobi desert, wading through the desert, used bodies to fence in animals and slaves to build deer ranch. Added 324 to 36 bureaus to make 360. Made a university at Pincheng and had all books taken here. S.Yan’s gen. Li Bian 李辩 gave Huatai to N.Wei. So De took Jin’s Qing (青州 CandE Shandong). Killed messenger CuiCheng 崔逞 who compared him to an owl and did not deprecate Jin’s status, which lowered his reputation when not many from Jin civil wars came to join his state. He wanted Consort Liu daughter of LiuToujuan to be empress and had her forge a gold statue according to Tuoba tradition. But Murong, the youngest daughter of M.Bao finished before her, so he made her empress. When old, he trusted astrologers, alchemists more and sought immortality, and he punished more. Tried to take L.Yan which only controlled Liaoning led by M.Sheng. When Xing of L.Qin knew Daowu had Murong, and L.Qin’s vassals attacked by Daowu, he went with YaoPing to attack at Chaibi (柴壁 Linfen, Shanxi) but Daowu surrounded and caught Ping and his army, stopping L.Qin. Had MoTi 莫题 plan palace, but killed him for a mistake and used plan anwyays. He went to Chaishan Palace (豺山宫 Shuozhou, Shanxi) for long stretches of time. Killed his cousin TuobaZun, YuYue, MonalouTi 莫那娄题, and TuobaYi the Prince of Wei. In 407, N.Wei and L.Qin made peace but Bobo rebelled and made Xia state because father, LiuWeichen was killed by N.Wei. Daowu, taking alchemists poisons was paranoid, sometimes not eating for days or sleeping overnight because of fortunetellers talking of a future nearby rebellion. He’d personally kill offenders. 87.

Only minister CuiHong and son CuiHao immune to his behavior.Made TuobaSi heir. And made his mother Consort Liu suicide due to Tuoba custom. Daowu was angry at Si for mourning, so Si fled Pingcheng. He assassinated aunt’s(Dowager Helan’s sister) husband, then took Helan as a concubine. She birthed TuobaShao 拓拔绍 and Daowu made him Prince of Qinghe. But he robbed travelers and stripped them for fun. So Daowu hanged him upside down in a well and took him out when near death. Fighting with concubine Helan, Daowu imorisoned her then was to kill her that night but hesistated, so Helan sent Shao a message,then 15, to save her and he entered the palace at night and killed Daowu. The guards then arrested and killed Shao and Helan and Si took the throne. 1) Dao4Wu3Di4 道武帝TuobaGui1(silicon) 拓拔硅, aka Tuoba She4(wade/go through)gui (拓拔涉硅) 386-409 (371-409) beastly commander Then came his oldest son who was an intelligent and rationale ruler, not expanding the state much and started custom of meeting officials to listen to advice and make final decisions, brightly seeing what should be first trying to keep what he inherited. Mother was Liu daughter of Liutojuan4(feel for) 刘头眷. Born at Yunzhong, then Daowu(21), pleased, made a general pardon. Daowu made him Prince of Qi in 409. After mother Liu killed by custom, he fled to the country afraid of Daowu. When Shao tried to seize troops, after killing Daowu, Si returned, gathered troops and executed Shao, Helan and Shao’s associates. Si’s used council of 8 officials from Xianbei, Han and other ethnicities. Si did execute TuobaQu1 (submit) 拓拔屈 who lost a battle to the Xia then failed to govern Bing. Sent Baba Song1(high/lofty) 拔拔嵩 to fight Rouran, who surrounded him, so Si came to his aid. He often examined front lines of empire against Rouran and N.Yan. Sent armies to quell rebellions. Tried to make peace with L.Qin, N.Yan, Rouran, and Jin. But ambassador Hu(ignore)niu3(accustomed to/blush)yu2(at) Shi2(assorted)men2 (door) 忽忸于什门 didn’t kneel to N.Yan’s FengBa, so Ba detained him. Also, 88.

Rouran’s Khan Yu4(luxuriantjiu3(long time)luu3(neighborhood) Da4tan2(wingceltis) 郁久闾大檀 invaded, but Si chased him back. Then he sent Daxi Jin (达奚斤 to pursue, but N.Wei forces were stopped by frostbite. And this would happen again and again. Si had CuiHao, son of CuiHong teach him the I Ching and the Hong Fan洪范. Si then asked for CuiHao’s predictions using the texts which often came true. Northern N.Wei had a famine, but Si didn’t move to Yecheng because of CuiHao’s and ZhouDan4’s(tranquil) 周澹advice that N.Wei’s Xianbei were few in number. But with CuiHao’s advice did have some Xianbei move to N.Hubei. In 415 Xing sent his daughter Xiping to marry Si, but she could not forge the golden statue so he kept her as a consort outside but honored her as empress in the palace. When LiuYu planned to conquer L.Qin, his general WangZhongde 王仲德 came near to N.Wei’s Huatai, so Wei4(surname)chi2Jian4 尉迟建 fled it. Si executed him and rebuked LiuYu and Zhongde. But Jiin kept Huatai until 422. Jin took Luoyang, and Hong asked for N.Wei aid, so against CuiHao, Si sent 100,000 to of Yellow R. to harass Jin. Then LiuYu sent Ding Wu 丁_ who beat them big. By 417 LiuYu destroyed L.Qin. Si offered rewards for captured Yao clansmen, but LiuYu killed most of them. Si seiged N.Yan’s capital Helong (和龙Jinzhou, Liaoning) but was forced to retreat. Got sick from alchemists medicine to make life longer. CuiHao told him he would live and he should make TuobaTao heir. BabaSong agreed. He made Baba, Cui, DaxiJin, An1chi2Tong安迟同, Qiumu4(solemn)ling2(hill) Guan4(look) 丘穆陵观, and Qiudun1(honest) Dui1(pile) 丘敦堆 to serve as his advisors. Against CuiHao Si planned to take Luoyang, Hulao, and Huatai from LiuSong after LiuYu died. But CuiHao made Daxi xommander. Si helped Daxi siege Huatai. Si had heir Tao guard agaist Rouran at this time. Daxi then went after Hualao and Luoyang. Si sent generals E2(pretty) Qing1(clear) 娥清, Luu3(neighborhood) Da4fei2(fat) 闾大肥, Pu3(general) Ji 普几, and
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