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1 3 Sovereigns and 5 Empererors


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Weifa sent Mumo and Xingguo to Ding at Shanggui. JiaoYi and his son JiaoKai 焦楷 tried to revive W. Qin, but JiaoYi died of illness, and JiaoKai fled to N. Liang. In 431 Ding executed Qifu Mumo and 500 members of his clan. 4) Qi3fu2Mu4(dusk)mo4(tip/end) 乞伏暮末 428-431 (died 431) aka An1(peace)shi2(stone) ba2(cross mountains) (安石跋)

[18] Xia Empire 407-431(3) First of Xiongnu, Xia. He was fiercely intense, had a thirst for killing, was arrogant, callous and betrayed all. He was a younger son of Liu Weichen 刘卫辰, a F.Qin vassal who controlled Mongolia and N.Shaanxi. Mother was Fu. Weichen sent son LiuZhilidi 刘直力□ to attack N. Wei's TuobaGui, and TuobaGui beat Zhilidi and beat capital Yueba (悦拔 Ordos, Inner Mongolia) Then Weichen and Zhilidi fled. Weichen was killed by subordinates and Zhilidi was caught. Gui then seized the territory and killed the clan, but Liubobo was subdued to be lonely, fled to the Xuegan 薛干 tribe, whose chief Tai Xifu 太悉伏 guarded him from N.Wei then gave him to Moyigan 没奕干, a L.Qin vassal who married a daughter to him and was like a father-in law. Gui slaughtered Xifu’s people and Xifu fled to L.Qin. Gui’s brother Tuoba Zun 拓拔遵 attacked Mo’s homebase of Gaoping (高平 Guyuan, Ningxia) and Mo left his peopel and fled to L.Qin, but L.Qin later recaptured Gaoping and gave it back to Mo. Liubobo became known to be handsome, ability to speak well, alertness, and intelligence, and Xing wanted to make him a general to guard against N.Wei against brother YaoYong 姚邕, but Xing made him Duke of Wuyuan to defend Shuofang (朔方 Ordos). When losing against N.Wei, Xing wanted peace, and angry, Liubobo stole YujiuluShelun’s 郁久闾社仑 (khan of Rouran) horses, a tribute to Xing, then caught Gaoping and killed suddenly Mo and seized his troops. He then declared himself tianwang,descendant of Yu and called state Xia. He then roved in calvalry attacking northern L.Qin. Sought to marry daughter of Rutan, who refused. 64.

Then he raided S.Liang who chased him, and Liubobo trapped and killed 65% in a, suddenly, canyon with ice and wagons. Xing sent QiNan 齐难 against Liubobo who enticed then ambushed him and caught Qi. Then Xing attacked and reached Ercheng (贰城 Yan'an, Shaanxi) but was trapped and almost defeated and he cancelled plan to help S.Yan against Jin. After Gangui died, Wang Maide 王买德 talked Bobob out of attacked ally W.Qin. Made cruel general ChiganAli 叱干阿利 build Tongwan(10,000 states united). Steamed and tested the soil, and killed and stuffed bodies into wall if test failed. Refusing relation to Han’s ‘Liu”, changed name to Helian “alas 赫 be connected 连 to the heavens” and officials to tiefa 铁伐. Made Liang Princess and HelianGui 赫连_ heir. Made alliance with N.Liang’s Mengxun and moved to Anding (安定 Pingliang, Gansu) awaiting LiuYu to take Chang’an. Had HelianGui, Helian Chang, and Wang Maide surround Chang’an against Jin while LiuYizhen recalled troops to Chang’an. Then Liuyu had ZhuLingshi 朱龄石 replace Yizhen, but HelianGui crushed Yizhen’s forces and Yizhen escaped. Bobo made a hill of Jin skulls. The people expelled Zhu then Bobo entered easily and became emperor. Kept Tongwan as capital, let Gui guard Chnag’an. He climbed towers to shoot arrows, gouged out eyes, sliced lips open, cut out tongues. Deposed heir Gui and made HelianLun 赫连伦 heir. Gui attacked HelianLun north from Chang'an. Their forces met at Gaoping, and Helian Gui defeated and killed HelianLun. Then HelianLun's brother Helian Chang made a surprise attack and killed Gui and took his troops to Tongwan. Bobo was pleased and made Chang heir. In 425 Bobo died. 1) Wu3(fierce) Lie4(intense)Di4 武烈帝 He4(alas)lian2 (connected)Bo2(suddenly)bo2(suddenly) 赫连勃勃 407-425 (381-425) nickname Liu2 Bo2bo2 刘勃勃, aka Qu1(subdue) jie2(lonely) 屈孑 agressively haughty Was 3rd son of Bobo. When Bobo caught L.Qin’s Yinmi (阴密 Pingliang, Gansu), he had Chang govern Yong (雍州 CandN Shaanxi) which was mostly L. Qin’s. 65.


When Bobo attacked Chang’an ,he had Chang cut off Tong Gate (潼关 Weinan, Shaanxi), so that Jin forces could not escape. When Yizhen’s replacement ZhuLingshi 朱龄石 fled Chang’an he fled to Caogong Castle (曹公垒, Weinan), where Chang besieged him and his brother ZhuChaoshi 朱超石 by cutting off his water, then he killed the Zhu brothers. As Emp Chang was a fierce soldier. He tried to be prosperous by taking W.Qin. Allied with Mengxun and sent HuluGu 呼卢古 to attack Wanchuan (苑川 Baiyin, Gansu) and WeiFa 韦伐 to attack Nan'an (南安 Dingxi, Gansu). W. Qin held Wanchuan, but Nan'an fell, at great loss. Then Hulu and Wei attacked Fuhan and Gangui to moved the capital to Dinglian. Then Hulu and Wei caught Xiping (西平 Xining, Qinghai). They withdrew and faced Daiwu in 426, who crossed Yellow R. and on winter solstice when Chang had a feast, attacked Tongwan, Chang fought him then retreated into the city but DoudaiTian 豆代田 put the palace on fire then left and pillaged aroud Tongwan. Meanwhile, DaxiJin 达奚斤 attacked Puban (蒲阪 Yuncheng, Shanxi) and PuJi 普几 attacked Shancheng (陕城 Sanmenxia, Henan). Pu caught Shancheng then on way to Chang’an died from sickness and his army withdrew. When DaxiJin came to Puban, HelianYidou 赫连乙斗 sent a message to Tongwan for help, but messenger falsely said Tongwan had fallen. So, Yidou fled to Chang’an and he got Chang’s brother HelianZhuxing 赫连助兴 to flee Chang’an and go to Anding (安定 Pingliang, Gansu). So Xia caught S. half of Xia. Then Chang sent brother HelianDing to Chang’an who then stalemated with DaxiJin. Because of this Daiwu attacked Tongwan. Chang asked Ding for help but Ding said to guard Tongwan and wait until he caught Chang’an to help him. Chang heard falsely N.Wei had little food so came out and almost caught Daiwu, but N.Wei killed Chang’s brother HelianMan 赫连满 and his nephew HelianMengxun 赫连蒙逊. Panicking, Chang fled to Shanggui (上□ Tianshui, Gansu). Then N.Wei took Tongwan and caught Bobo’s and Chang’s empresses, and Chang’s sisters. 66.

Daiwu made 3 of Chang’s sisters concubines. Ding then abandoned Chang’an and went to Shanggui. Daxi chased and his official WeichiJuan 尉迟眷 took Shanggui and Chang fled to Pingliang. When Daxi came to Pingliang his men caught dieases, then Chang attacked and they fled to Anding, where Chang attacked it daily. But without orders AnchiJia 安迟颉 and Weichi led a force and caught Chang when he fell off his horse. Ding fled to Pingliang and took throne. Chang was taken to N.Wei’s capital Pingcheng (平城 Datong, Shanxi). Taiwu gave him Western Palace. Gave Chang Princess Shiping in marriage and Chang went with him on hunts. Chang approve P.M.’s war against Rouran against astrologers ZhangYuan 张渊 and XuBian 徐辩 because they failed to warn Chang of Tongwan’s fall. Taiwu made Chang Prince of Qin. Taiwu had Chang help to have HelianShegan surrender Pingliang to him. Later Chang turned against Wei and fled Pincheng, convinced to go back to his countrybut was intercepted west of the Yellow. R. and killed, then Wei killed his surviving brothers. 2) Qin2(Qin dynasty) Wang2 秦王 He4 lian2Chang1(prosperous) 赫连昌 425-428 (died 434) aka Huan2(go back)guo2(country) 还国 aka Zhe(convinced) charged Then came a son of Bobo and younger brother of Chang. Ding was a delinquent an frivolous youth. Chang sent him to attack Chang’an’s N.Wei’s Daxi Jin. Ding planned to take Chang’an then help Chang at Tongwan against N.Wei. Then he joined Chang at Shanggui after Tongwan was lost. After Chang was captured, he fled to Pingliang and took the throne. He then caught the weak Daxi. Then N.Wei’s QiudunDui 丘敦堆 feld Anding and with N.Wei’s TuobaLi 拓拔礼 feld to Puban (蒲阪 Yuncheng, Shanxi). Then Xia recovered Chang’an and the Guanzhong flatlands to be king.. Then Ding tried to get peace, but Daiwu refused. Ding allied with LiuSong’s Wen to attack N.Wei subscribed but noone would cross Yellow R. first. Because of this, Taiwu attacked Pingliang. Also QifuMumo retreated to N.Wei. Then Ding tried to relieve Shegan, but N.Wei’s 67.

TuxiBi 吐奚弼 tricked him into being weak and then TuxiBi beat him and he fled to Chungu Plains (鹑觚原 Pingliang). There N.Wei seiged him. His forces collapsed from thirst and hunger and he escaped injured decided to Shanggui. Then Shegan and brother Duluogu 赫连度洛孤 surrendered Pingliang to N.Wei and Anding too. Taiwu gave Ding’s empress to general DoudaiTian 豆代田. N.Wei took most of Xia’s cities, so Ding went continuosly so as to not be divided and sent Weifa 韦伐 to siege W.Qin’s Nan’an into cannibalism and Mumo surrendered and Weifa took him to Shanggui. He executed Mumo and his clan. Ding then went west and crossed the Yellow R. at Zhicheng (治城 Linxia), so as to attack N. Liang. But, the khan of Tuyuhun, Murong Mugui 慕容慕_, sent his brothers MurongMuliyan 慕容慕利延 and MurongShiqian 慕容拾虔 to intercept Ding as they crossed the Yellow R. They captured Ding. Mugui delivered Ding to N. Wei In exchange for rewards and title, Prince of Xiqin. Then Daiwu executed Helian Ding. 3) Ping2 Yuan2(flatlands) Wang2 平原王 He4Lian2Ding4 (subscribe/decide) 赫连定 428-431 (died 432), aka Zhi2 (continuously)fen _constant

Other Wuhu Sovereignties

[1]Ran Wei Kingdom 350-352(1) Father was RanLiang2(very fine) 冉良 or RanZhan1(look forward) 冉瞻 who was an aristocrat, but joined refugees led by Chen2(lay out) Wu3(noon) 陈午. Shi Le caught RanZhan when he caught ChenWu. ShiHu changed his name to ShiZhan. Shizhan died when LiuYao beat ShiHu. ShiHu was impressed with his bravery and battlefield tactics. When ShuHu lost against F.Yan’s Jicheng for 20 days, only ShiMin’s group was intact. When Jin’s YuLiang planned to attack L.Zhao, ShiHu sent Kui2(one-legged monster/respectful) An1(peaceful) (夔安) who commanded 5 gernals: ShiMin, Min’s later ally Li3Nong2(farmer) 李农 and ShiJian were 3 of them. Min successfully stopped YuLiang. 68.

After ShiHu came his youngest ShiSHi, but Dow. Liu and ZhangChai张豺 controlled, so Shi Min helped ShiZun take them over, but Zun made another nephew, ShiYan heir. When ShiJian reported that ShiZun intended to kill Min against Zun’s mother, Zheng’s wishes, Min surrounded the palace and killed Shi Zun, Dow. Zheng, Shi Zun's wife Empress Zhang, Shi Yan, and several key officials. Min mad ShiJian emp. But he and LiNong held power. Jian sent brother ShiBao and generals Li3Song1(pine/slacken) 李松 and ZhangCai2(talent) 张才 against Min, but Min defeated them. Then Jian feigned ignorance and executed them. ShiZhi then rose in the old capital Xiangguo (襄国, Xintai, Hebei), with the Qiang chief YaoYi4zhong4(2nd) 姚弋仲 and the Di chief Pu2Hong2(vast) 蒲洪 against Min and Nong. Jian then tried to have the general Sun1Fu2(prostrate)du1(capital) 孙伏都, a Jie, attack Min, but Min quickly defeated him, and Jian, trying to absolve himself, ordered Min to execute Sun, but Min, a Han, ordered all non-han to not have arms so most Non-Han fled Yecheng. Put Jian under house arrest. Min knew Xiongnu and Jie would never support him so he rewarded any who beheaded a non-Han, making people mourn heaven. Then 200,000 died with some Han(who had full beards and big noses like non-Hans). Min had Jian change state name to Wei 卫 and clan name to Li李. While Min fought Zhi, Jian had general ZhangShen3 张沈 attack Min, but Jian’s eunuchs reported it to Min and Nong, so Min killed Jian and 28 grandsons of ShiHu and Shi clan. Then Min took throne having name be forever his father’s name Ran冉 and made name Wei 魏(different Wei). Made wife Dong Empress and son Zhi heir. Amnestied generals but few returned. Killed Li for unknown reasons. Ran was rash, with thorns he made slaves. He did mass executions. Was violent or killed advisors then later apologized. Ran seiged Zhi’s Xiangguo, but M.Jun helped Zhi and dealt Ran a big defeat. Xiangnu of Yecheng rebelled and caught son RanYin then surrendered to Zhi who 69.

executed Yin. Zhi had Liu2 Xian3(obvious) 刘显 siege Yecheng, but Ran defeated him, and in awe Xian agreed to kill Zhi and surrender.He did and gave Zhi’s head to Ran.Ran burned it in downtown Yecheng. But Xian decalred himself emperor so Ran caught Xiangguo and executed Xian. F.Yan, who estd. Took You province and Jicheng(Beijing) had M.Ke(M.Jun’s brother) trick Ran inot being weak then surrounded Ran with calvary. Was caught when horse died suddenly. Ran insulted Jun, so Jun whipped him 300 times and then executed him. In drought, Jun afraid, honored him as Daowu. Empress Dong and son RanZhi surrendered that year . Min’s famous for executing all of the Wu Hu, esp. the Jie, which, a race of caucasians. He fought the Hu armies in Jizhou, leading to millions of different races to flee, and attack each other and only 2-3/10 people could return home. Although the North fell to F.Yan’s Xianbei, Min's actions made them fear the Han. He helped sinicize N. Non-Hans, slowly bringing culture throught the door.. 1) Wu3 Dao4(mourn) Tian1 Wang2 武悼天王 Ran3(slowly) Min3 冉闵 350-352 (died 352), aka Shi2Min3 石闵, (()魏悼武天王), aka Yong3zeng1 永曾, aka Ji2(brambles) nu2(slave)棘奴 bigoted

[2] Xi (W.) Yan Empire 384-394 (7) 1st came son of M.Jun and younger brother of M.Wei. In 384 he was secretary general to the governor of Beidi (北地Tongchuan, Shaanxi). When he heard uncle M.Chui rebelled, he wanted power and gathered 1000s of Xianbei soldiers, defeated F. Qin general Qiang2Yong3 强永, then claimed himself supreme commander and governor of Yong Province (雍州 CandN. Shaanxi), When he heard Jian’s brother Fu Rui4 (苻□) was to attack him, he wanted to flee to the Yan homeland. Rui, against YaoChang, cut off Hong's escape route and attacked, but Hong defeated and killed him. Also, younger brother M.Chong rebelled against F. Qin, but after a defeat joined Hong. M. Hong demanded that Jian send his older brother M. Wei to him, promising to leave Guanzhong and not attack F. Qin any further if that was done. 70.


Jian summoned M. Wei and rebuked him, but spared him when he pledged allegiance. Jian also had him write letters to M. Chui, M. Hong, and M. Chong, urging them to surrender. But Wei said for them to set. Themselves and forget him and he told Hong to take imperial title. Hong then atacked Chang'an and changed the era name. But his strategist Gao1Gai4(cover) 高盖 and others felt that Hong's reputation was not as great as his brother M.Chong's, and that his punishments were overly harsh, so Hong was in deep water and Gai killed him and supported M. Chong to succeed him, under the title of crown prince. 1) Wei1Di4 威帝 Mu4rong2Hong2 (deep water) 慕容泓 384 (died 384) joiner Then came a son of M.Jun and younger brother of M.Wei. After, uncle M.Ke died, he became commander of the armed forces. Talks were of his sexual relation with Jian and his sister, whom Jian had as a concubine.In 384 he was governor of Pingyang (平阳 Linfen, Shanxi). He rebelled when he heard of M.Chui’s and M.Hongs rebellions. But he was soon defeated by F.Qin general Dou4(hole/sinus) Chong(dash) 窦冲 then he fled to his brother M.Hong. Then Gao1Gai4高盖 had Hong killed and had Chong succeed. Then FuJian made a sexual overture to him, but he rejected it. When M.Wei and his cousin MurongSu4(respectful/solemn) 慕容肃 organized the Xianbei in Chang’an and planned to rebel, FuJian executed him and the Xianbei. Then Chong declared himself emp. And he became capricious giving rewards and punishments at whim. Chang’an entered a famine and he pillaged the Guanzhong region. When Jian left Chang’an to find food, Chong took Chang’an and Jian’s heir FuHong fled. The Xianbei wanted to return east to homeland, but Chong stayed in Chang’an because he liked it and he feared uncle M.Chui who formed L.Yan. Then his general Han2 Yan2(prolong/send for) 韩延 assassinated him in a coup and supported another general, Duan Sui, as the Prince of Yan. 2) Mu2rong4Chong(dash) 慕容冲 384-386 (died 386) (西)燕威帝 bouncy 71.


Then came only one who was not a Murong sectioned. He was installed after Chong refused to return to their eastern home because he complied. He was ambushed and killed by MurongHeng2(permanent) 慕容恒 and MurongYong. 3) Duan4(section) Sui2(comply) 段随 386 (died 386) jarred He was replaced by a son of the F. Yan Prince of Yidu, MurongHuan2 慕容桓 who was a son of the founder of F.Yan, MurongHuang. The W. Yan people─400,000 men and women─then abandoned Chang'an, which had been the F. Qin capital but was captured by the prior W. Yan ruler Murong Chong -- to head back to their homeland in the east. While on the journey, however he was stopped/ceased by MurongHeng's brother MurongTao1(art of war) 慕容韬 killed Murong Yi at Linjin (临晋 Weinan, Shaanxi). 4) Murong Yi3(stop/cease/ already) 慕容□ 386 (died 386) jammed Then came the son of Murong Chong, the son of the F. Yan emperor Murong Jun. After Murong Tao1慕容韬 killed Murong Yi, his brother, Murong Heng2(permanent) (慕容恒), who did not approve of Tao's actions, supported Murong Yao as precious jade as emperor. However, the people did not favor Murong Yao and abandoned him in favor of the general Murong Yong, who then killed Murong Yao in a coup and replaced him with Murong Zhong. 5) Murong Yao2(precious jade) 慕容瑶 386 (died 386) He was son of MurongHong, a son of MurongJun. After 4 W.Yan rulers were killed, Zhong was made emperor by the general MurongYong after Yong had killed Yao. Zhong made Yong the commander of the armed forces and created him the Duke of Hedong. At that time, the W. Yan people were on an exodus from Chang'an. Zhong reached Wenxi (闻喜 Yuncheng, Shanxi) when people heard that Zhong's granduncle Chui estd. L.Ya. Hesitant to go further, they built the city of Yanxi1(bright/gay) 燕熙 at Wenxi to be a temporary headquarters. Three months later Zhong was assassinated in a

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coup by the general Diao1(tricky/artful) Yun2(cloud/say) (刁云), who then supported Murong Yong as the ruler.

6) Murong Zhong1(devoted/loyal/honest) 慕容忠 386 ( 386) juncture He was the grandson of Murong Yun4(wield) (慕容运), the uncle of F. Yan's founder MurongHuang. Being poor, his wife sold boots. With MurongHeng2(permanent) (慕容恒), he attacked Duan Sui and killed him, replacing him with MurongYi. After M.Tao killed M.Yi and replaced him with MurongYao, Yong, with general Diao1(tricky) Yun2(say) (刁云), attacked Murong Tao, forcing him to flee to Murong Heng. Then Yong killed M.Yao and replaced him with M.Zhong. Then Diao killed Zhong and replaced him with Yong. Yong sought to be a vassal of L.Yan’s Chui. He asked F.Qin’s FuPi to let him go east but Pi intercepted him, but Yong killed Pi’s P.M. Wang2Yong3 王永 and general Ju3qu2 Ju4(all)shi2 zi3 (cobblestone) 沮渠俱石子 and caught most of Pi’s officials and empress Yang while he fled. Pi then died by the hand of the Jin general Feng2 Gai1(ought) 冯该. Yong took Pi’s territory (C and S. Shanxi) with capital at Zhangzi (长子 Changzhi, Shanxi). He decalred himself emperor against Chui trying to be forever. He tried to make Pi’s Empress Yang a concubine, but she tried to stab him with a sword, and he killed her. In fear, Chui’s son, Murong Rou2(yielding) (慕容柔) and grandsons MurongSheng and MurongHui, fled W.Yan to go to L.Yan’s capital Zhongshan (中山 Baoding, Hebei) probably because Yong in 387 ordered that all descendants of Chui or Jun be slaughtered. In Zhangzi, Yong carried out few military campaigns and was content. He did briefly engaged L. Qin's Yao Chang in battle. He was defeated at Luoyang by the Jin general Zhu1(bright red) Xu4(order) 朱序. He attacked Luoyang again in 391 but was repelled by Jin forces. The Dingling chief ZhaiZhao, whose father ZhaiLiao had years earlier rebelled against L. Yan and claimed the title Tian Wang and estd. Wei, was sieged by Chui

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in his capital Huatai (滑台 Anyang, Henan) He then sought aid from Yong. Yong then let Chui crush ZhaiZhao easily. Zhai Zhao fled to W. Yan and was created a prince, but Yong suspected Zhai of treason so Yong killed Zhai. Chui from brother Murong De’s advice, decided to attack Yong. Yong tried to anticipate it, but Chui attacked by three routes uncle was brighter, leading the main army to Zhangzi. Yong personally engaged Murong Chui but was defeated, and he fled back to Zhangzi to try to defend the city. He also sought emergency aid from Jin and N. Wei, but Zhangzi fell before they came. Chui captured and executed Yong. W. The territory was annexed to L. Yan. 7) MurongYong3 慕容永 386-394 (died 394), aka Shu1(uncle)ming2 叔明 hustled

[3] Shu Kingdom 405-413 A kind and careful emp. of Sichuan during E.Jin times. He was from Baxi (巴西 Nanchong, Sichuan). He was a commander under Mao2(panicky)Qu2(jade ring) 毛璩, the Jin governor of Yi (益州 Sichuan and Chongqing). When HuanXuan took An’s throne, MaoQu was to attack but LiuYu beat HuanXuan and restored An. But Xuan’s nephew Huan2Zhen4(shake) 桓振 took Jiangling (江陵 Jingzhou, Hubei) and resisted. Mao then sent a force with brothers Mao2Jin3(brilliancy of gems) 毛瑾 and Mao2Yuan4(big jade ring) 毛瑗, and a force with Zong and Hou2(marquis) Hui1(sunshine) 侯晖. Unhappy of the long-distance campaign, the soldiers mutinied when they reached Wuchengshuikou (五城水口 Deyang, Sichuan). Hou and Yang2(male) Mo 阳_ wanted to install Zong but Zong refused, drum tower beat for him even if he refused it. He ran and tried to suicide by jumping in the river, but they put swords on his neck and forced him to lead the mutineers. Then the mutineers killed MaoJin. MaoQu and MaoYuan and their clan were killed when they responded. Zong let his brother Qiao2(drum tower)Ming2zi(pine torch) 谯明子 and cousins QiaoHong2(flood) 谯洪 and QiaoDao4fu2(good fortune) 谯道福 control the state. 74.


Liu Yu sent MaoXiu1(repair)zhi1(connector) 毛修之--MaoJin's son, SimaRong2(luxuriant)Qi1(time) 司马荣期, Wen2Chumao4 (luxuriant) 文处茂, and Shi2Yan2(prolong)zu3(ancestor) 时延祖 to attack W.Shu but on the way SimaRongQi was assassinated by Yang2(poplar)Cheng2(bear)Zu3 杨承祖 so the Jin retreated to Baidicheng. Then MaoXiuZhi killed Yang, so LiuYu sent Liu Jing4(respect)Xuan1(declare) 刘敬宣 to attack. Zong then submitted to L.Qin and secretly was friends with Jin’s Lu2 Xun2(follow/) 卢循of Guang(Guangdong and Guangxi). Zong asked YaoXing to send HuanXuan’s cousin, Huan2Qian1(modest) 桓谦 to help fight Jin, but Zong house arrested him from suspicion. LiuJingXuan advanced to Huanghu (黄虎 Suining, Sichuan) and Zong sought L.Qin aid. Xing sent aid, but QiaoDaofu stopped JingXuan. After 60 day stalemate, Jingxuan retreated with no food. Xing made Zong Shu Prince and gave 9 bestowments. When LiuYu took S.Yan, LiuXun took most of Jin, but retreated when LiuYu returned. Zong, with Xing’s approval, attacked Jing (荆州 Hubei and Hunan) with HuanQian and the L.Qin general Gou3(careless) Lin2(forest) 苟林. But, LiuYu's brother LiuDaoGui1(rule)刘道规 beat them and HuanQian was killed. Zong withdrew while catching Badong (巴东 Chongqing). In 412, LiuYu ordered Zhu1 Ling2(years) Shi2 朱龄石 with 20000 to go .a different way than JingXuan to attack W.Shu (bypass Huanghu and go to Chengdu by route of Min River 岷江). Not anticipating, Zong had QiaoDaoFu army at JinXuan’s route by FuRiver 涪江, at Fucheng (涪城 Mianyang, Sichuan). Only when Zhu reached Pingmo (平模 Leshan, Sichuan) did HouHui and QiaoShen 谯诜 arrive to try to stop Zhu. Zhu killed Hou and Shen, then left his ships and went to Chengdu. Zong left Chengdu and fled to Daofu's camp. His daughter suggested that they suicide at the tombs, but Zong refused. 75.


Daofu rebuked him for leaving Chengdu, and he threw his sword at Zong. Zong fled but, believing that he could not escape, hanged himself. Daofu continued to resist, but he was captured and killed by Zhu. 1) Cheng2 Du Wang 成都王 Qiao2(drum tower) Zong4(vertical/ indulge/even if) 谯纵 405-413 (died 413) heedful
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