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[12] Nan (S. ) Liang Kingdom 397 AD - 414 AD(3) campaigned ingeniously ainlessly 39

The first of this Xianbei Dynasty wanted tobe valiant (advised to be diligent, encourage agriculture, and rule efficiently and fairly by general Fen Tuo 纷陀) and was like a black crow secretly submitting to L.Liang(Luu Guang), but wanting to defeat it and was lonely in his quest making others follow him( He sent Liliugu to relieve Guo Nen(magician)/ L. Liang rebels Yang Gui (杨轨) and Wang Qiji (王乞基) joined him/helped stave off Luu Shao and Luu Zuan against N. Liang/died drunk falling of horse saying”I’m making Guang happy!”/moved capital to Ledu乐都) 1) Wu3(valiant) Wang 武王 Tufa Wu(black crow)gu(lonely) 秃发乌孤 397-399 (died 399), formally Prince Wu of Wuwei (武威武王) bullheaded. Then came his younger brother who was healthy (open to opinions: Shi Gao saying relocating bad/had a united and faithful country). He was a profitable(staved off Zuan and Shao against N. Liang/snet Rutan against Guzang while Zuan fought N. Liang/Qifu Gangui surrendered to S. Liang after L. Liang defeated him/was going to execute Chipan, who later defeated S. Liang, but was stopped by Rutan/successfully attacked Luu Long/caught cousin Juqu Shanshan'gouzi (沮渠鄯善苟子) when Mengxun would not give brother JuquRu) deer (he acted contradictorily:aided L. Liang at one time) acting alone(being contradictory) 2) Kang1 Wang2 康王 Tu1fa Li4(profitable)lu4 (deer) gu1 (alone) 秃发利鹿孤 399-402 (died 402), Prince Kang of He2xi1 (河西康王) contradictory Then came his brother,a respected (talented) son of Tufa Sifujian (秃发思复犍) chosen to be king.. He attacked N.Liang many times and weakened himself so then he was caught by Qifu Chipan of W.Qin(fighted the Yifu乙弗while son TufaHutai guarded Ledu) whom he saved from executiuon earlier, standing like an insulted one Then he was poisoned to death acceptingly. He befriended L. Liang rebel general Jiang Ji (姜纪) who betrayed him and fled to Qin. When another L.Liang rebel Jiao Lang (焦朗 sought aid,he reluctanlty worked with Rutan to damage greatly Lu Chao吕超).Yao Xing gave him Liang Province after giving 3000 horses and 30000 sheep. 40

Lost 60-70% of soldiers to Liubobo when trapped in a canyon. Then state panicked and ordereed everyone within 150 km of Guzang. Stopped Yao Xing’s Yao Bi(buried 5000 alive of Wangzhong’s rebellion), Yao Xian, Qifu Gangui, and Lian Cheng (敛成) declaring himself Emp making Yaoxing respect him by standinglike a tree putting a lid on returning since dawn. 3) Jing3 Wang2 景王 Jing4 Wang2 敬王 Tu1fa Rutan2(wingceltis)|秃发 402-414 (365 415) accelling battler

[13] Bei (N.) Liang Kingdom 397-439 (5) circling irrationally gesturing: cheating First a Juqu(“unclear responsibility”) from Jingzhao(xi’an) made a commander of an area in L.Liang for F.Qin after F.Qin conquered F. Liang then became a minister of Jiankang section under L. Liang.Made to join the line of business of N.Liang by pressure fom Juqu Nancheng(seiged it for 20 days)/ He made Mengxun take Xi commandery, taking Luu Chun(Guang’s nephew)/Saved by Mengxun against Luu Hong(Guang’s son). Stopped L.Liang’s Shao and Zuan with Wugu’s help in 399 and again in 400(when Rutan fought Guzang)/ Had problem with Li Gao and Tang Yao (唐瑶) declaring W.Liang with 6 commanderies after Meng Min (孟敏 died and Suo Si (索嗣) taking over./After replacing Menxun with Ma Quan (马权),Mengxun 1st killed Nancheng(sent to worship lanmen) then Duan Ye.Released convict Tian Ang (田昂) to fight Menxun be he surrendered then Menxun executed Duan 1) Duan4(section) Ye4(line of business) 段业 397-401 (died 401) dummy Then a cousin of Nancheng came who was respected for his broad knowledge of history and humor but kept himself hiddenly modest by his heavy drinking and being frivolous. He joined Nancheng to start N. Liang after their uncles, Juqu Luochou (沮渠罗仇) and Juqu Quzhou (沮渠麴粥), were falsely killed. When cities Jiuquan and Liangning rebelled to join W. Liang, he sent Zhang Qian张潜to L. Qin to ask for help, then later killed him for surrendering to L. Qin Didn’t want to give up son Juqu Ru to Liligu so gave 41

Juqu Xi'nian 沮渠奚念 Gave food modest to L. Liang during famine after failed attack due to S. Liang’s aid arriving late. Let modest Liang Zhongyong betray him to W.Qin. Took 10,000 houses when Rutan and Juyan 俱延 attacked. After defeating Gao’s heir Li Xin, Gao gave gold to him to give back modest general Zhu Yuanhu 朱元虎. When Rutan moved capital back to Ledu fearing rebellion, Hou Chen 侯谌 and Jiao Lang 焦朗 rebelled and took Guzang. Then Mengxun came to Guzang and put Juqu Ru in charge there then went to S. Liang and took Tufa Anzhou 秃发安周 hostage. When Rutan avenged, he took another son, Tufa Ran'gan 秃发染干. Then moved capital to Guzang and seiged Ledu 20 days and general Tufa Wenzhi 秃发文支) surrendered and Tufa Juyan (Rutan’s brother) became hostage. Eunuch Wang Huaizu (王怀 tried to assassinate but only hurt his foot and Princess Meng beheaded him. Killed Liu Xiang 刘祥 when he made light modest of Liu Yu. From 414-416 fought W. Liang. Was caught and beat by Li Xin when using a trap making Juqu Guangzong 沮渠广宗 fake surrender. Faked attack at Haomen 浩, and hid army at Zhangye then killed Li Xin. He hired his half-brother Song Yao 宋繇. Killed everyone in Dunhuang when Li xun, Li Xin’s brother rebelled, refusing his surrender. He then attacked W. Qin more and encouraged Hutai and his sister(Chipan’s wife) to rebel, but they were caught and killed. Rouran attacked and killed heirJuqu Zhende, so Juqu Xingguo 沮渠兴国 became heir.When Chipan and Mumo attacked N. Liang, he had Helian Chang attacked then withdrew. Xingguo was caught by W. Qin and failing to ransom with grain, made his younger brother Juqu Puti 沮渠菩提 heir. After Xia fell to N. Wei, he sent son Juqu Anzhou to N. Wei as hostage modest. Then N. Wei official Li Shun (李顺) bestowed titles, but when old, Mengxun was cruel and didn’t honor Lishun, who then threatened him.
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2) Wu3 Xuan1(declare/drain) Wang2 武宣王J u3(stopped) qu2(canal) Mengxun4(modest) 沮渠蒙逊 401-433 (368-433) covert boozer Then his third son from Princess 42Meng came who was grieved because he was studious and kind and he was herded like a bull because N. Liang was at the peak of its strength but, N. Wei was stronger and caught Guzang and Mujian. Mengxun gave him command of Jiuquan and Li Xin’s wife Li Jingshou. Chosen because Juqu Puti was too young. Mujian made Juqu Fengtan 沮渠封坛 heir. He gave sister Princess Xingping to N. Wei’s Daiwu sincere who made her a consort. But Mujian also allied with Rouran and Liu Song. Daiwu gave his sister Princess Wuwei to marry Mujian, so he was forced to divorce Li. He exiled Li after a sex scandal and plot to poison Wuwei failed, so Daiwu sent her doctors and Daiwu demanded Li to be given, but Mujian refused, then Li soon died in Jiuquan. By demands, Mujian sent Juqu Fengtan sincere to N. Wei’s capital Pingcheng 平城 Datong, Shanxi) as hostage, and also was luxurious traded books with Wen of Liu Song. When N. Wei messengers to Xiyu found N. Liang telling Xiyu to ally with Rouran not N. Wei, Daiwu planned an attack using Yuan He(son of Tufa Rutan) as guide. He sieged Guzang 2 months while Mujian had Rouran's Chilian Khan, Yujiulu Wuti surprise attack N. Wei’s Pingcheng, but that failed and his brother Yujiulu Qiliegui 郁久闾乞列归 was caught and Mujian’s nephew Juqu Wannian 沮渠万年 surrendered then Guzang fell and Mujian tied his won arms in submission BUT opened a treasure chest before being taken, which later was found in his possession the same treasures of poisons and pious magical items that Mengxun and Mujian’s sisters used, then Daiwu angrily forced Mujian to suicide. 3) Ai1(grief)Wang2 哀王 Ju3qu2 Mu4(herd) jian1 (bullock) 沮渠牧犍 433-439 (died 447), named Juqu Mao4 (luxuriant) qian2(pious/sincere) 沮渠茂虔 fucker+3(cheating) Then came his younger brother who had no taboos. He declared himself Prince of Hexi but had little power. He caught N. Wei’s 43

YuanJie of Jiuquan. After Tufa Baozhou (秃发保周), a son of Rutan suicided, he sent his general Liang Wei (梁伟) to show submission to N. Wei general Tuoba Jian 拓拔健, brother of Taiwu, then Taiwu made Prince of Jiuquan. When cousin Juqu Tang'er 沮渠唐儿 rebelled in Dunhuang, he left cousin Juqu Tianzhou 沮渠天周 in control of Jiuquan, but N. Wei sent Daxi Juan 达奚眷 against Jiuquan which fell and Tianzhou was killed. Then Wuhui sent brother Juqu Anzhou to Xiyu who was repelled, but together took Shanshan after half their troops died from thirst. Then N. Liang general Tang Qi 唐契 was attacking another former N. Liang general, Hei Shuang 阚爽, at Gaochang, and Hei asked Wuhui for help but Wuhui came late and Hei already killed Tang and so gave no admission to Wuhui, so Wuhui took Gaochang and Hei fled to Rouran. Wen of Liu Song made Wuhui Prince of Hexi.Then Wuhui died. 4) Ju3qu2 Wu2hui4(taboo)沮渠无讳 442-444 (died 444) bunker Then his brother came. In 431 he governor of Ledu and was sent by Mengxun to N. Wei’s Pingcheng but he fled to Tuyuhun. Then in 441 he joined Wuhui at Dunhuang, making a peaceful circuit. After Wuhui died he took control over Wuhui’s sons,Juqu Ganshou 沮渠乾寿, men, but Ganshou surrendered to N. Wei. He made a good relationship with Rouran but Rouran attacked Gaoshang and killed Anzhou and his clan, then Rouran made Kan Bozhou 阚伯周 the king of Gaochang. 5) Ju3qu2 An1(peaceful)zhou1(circuit) 沮渠安周 444-460 (died 460) arranged on the fringes

[14] Xi Liang Kingdom 400-421(3) diverging joining jinxers First came, a plum under the sun tall a deeply flourishing one(prevailing through N. Wei, W. Wei, N. Zhou, and Sui Dynasty and then through Li Yuan, the Tang dynasty. Father was Li Chang 李昶, ancestor of Han general Li Guang. After Chang died, mother married again and birthed his half brother,Song Yao (宋繇). Gao was studious, rational, and open-minded or did what was obvious and valiantly studied the military strategies of Sunzi 44

and Wuqi. Lived with Songyao and GuoNen who made a prophecy. When Mengmin died in 400, people wanted Li Gao to be governor of Dunhuang so Gao accepted. But Duanye sent Suosi to take over, but at urging of Song and Zhang Miao 张邈, Gao attacked Suo and asked Duan that he be executed. When subordinate Tang Yao 唐瑶 declared a six commandery succession, Gao became Duke starting W. Liang with capital at Dunhuang. Soon Jiuquan defected to him. Submitted to L. Qin after L. Liang’s fall. Made Li Xin heir after heir Li Tan 李谭 died. Moved capital to Jiuquan to pressure N. Liang’s capital Zhangye. Wrote a letter to all his sons telling them to be open-minded and think logically, and be mild in temperament so that the strong point can be birthed. Allied with S. Liang’s Rutan in 406. In 410 Mengxun defeated Li Xin and caught Zhu Yuanhu 朱元虎, whom Gao ransomed with gold and silver. After making peace, Mengxun made a surprise attack but ran out of food and withdrew but Li Xin chased and caught N. Liang’s general Juqu Bainian 沮渠百年. Theng Gao got sick and died leaving Li Xin to be adopted son of Song.1) Wu3(valiant) Zhao1(obvious) Wang2 武昭王 Li3 (plum) Gao3 400-417 (351 417) aka Xuan2 (obscure)sheng4 (flourishing) 玄盛 aka Chang2(strong point)sheng1(birth) (长生) anciently grew Then came his son of Gao and Lady Yin. He made Song Yao P.M. He cruelly pleased himself and being a master of industry building palaces.Jin made him the Duke of Jiuquan. He listened to advice of Zhang Tishun (张体顺) to not leave Jiuquan to face Mengxun and Mengxun left. He was like a tall tree with a stiff back ignoring advice of officials Zhang Xian (张显) and Fan Cheng (泛称) to stop building palaces to save strength to defeat Mengxun. Ignored adviceof Song Yao and Zhang Tishun and Dow Yin(mother) to not attack Zhangye, when Mengxun faked attack on Haomen. Ashamed of defeat, he died in battle and Mengxun took the state in 421. 45.

2) Li3(plum) Xin1(pleased) 李歆 417-420 (died 420) aka Shi4(master)ye4(industry) (士业), aka Tong2(phoenix tree) zhui1(vertebra) (桐椎) craved Then came his brother who was a benevolent/sincere governor of Jiuquan and Dunhuang commanderies. After Li Xin died, the Li brothers fled from Jiuquan to Dunhuang then hefled to the hills. Mengxun made Suo Yuanxu 索元绪 governor of Dunhuang but was rude, dishonest, and cruel. Song Cheng 宋承 and Zhang Hong 张弘 secretly invited Li Xun back to re-est. W.Liang forcing Suo to flee. Mengxun then sent heir Juqu Zhengde 沮渠政德, but Xun refused to engage, being a bodyguard being in compliance with his state. so Mengxun came and built levees against Dunhuang and refused Xun’s surrender.Song Cheng betrayed Xun and offered city to Mengxun, then Xun suicided and Mengxun slaughtered everyone. 3) Li3(plum) Xun2(sincere) 李恂 420-421 (died 421) aka Shi4(bodyguard) Ru2 (in compliance) (士如) affectionate

[15] Qian Qin Empire 351 AD - 394 AD(6) First came Pu Hong’s 蒲洪(Di Chieftain of Han Zhao of Yong雍州) 3rd son by Lady Jiang. Shi Hu killed 2 other sons from fear.Hong helped Shi Zun take Yecheng from ShiShi, but Zun stripped his title. Then ShiMin installed ShiJian and the Di and Qiang wanted to go backto their homelands. Jin made Hong Duke of Guangchuan and PuJian Duke of Xiangguo,but Hong changed it top Prince of Sanqin and Grand Chanyu and changed name to Fu then headed to takover Guanzhong but Ma Qiu (麻秋) poisoned him, so Hong commisioned Jian to do it.So Jian killed Ma. He took back his Jin title and moved to Fangtou close to Du Hong (杜洪) at Chang’an .Then went west with brother Fu Xiong 苻雄 in one army and nephew Fu Qing (苻菁) and Yu Zun (鱼遵) in another. In 350 Chang’an fell. Rejected advisor Jia Xuanshuo (贾玄硕 who said he should take Jin title of Prince of Qin,but Jian with a view distinct called himself 天王 . He was thrifty and abolished harsh, L.Zhao laws,making F. Qin healthy,BUT was violent 46

and easily offended.Then put Jia and sons to death for “conspiring” with Jin’s Sima Xun 司马勋 when advocated his engagement as Emp. In 353 Fu Xiong and Fu Qing stopped atack from F.Liang. Huan Wen attacked and Jian had heir FuChang 苻苌, FuSheng the Prince of Huainan, Fu Shuo the Prince of Beiping, along with Fu Xiong and Fu Qing to guard.Huan advance to Chang’an but waited and Jian anticipating harvested all of the wheat, and hungry Huan withdrew in 354. But Chang died from an arrow and the Empress Qiang wanted younger Fu Liu 苻柳 to be heir, but Jian believed a prophecy to make Sheng heir in 355. Jian’s nephew Fu Qing Prince of Pingchang made a surprise attack but Jian caught him andexecuted only him. 1) Jing3(view) Ming2 (distinct) Di4 景明帝 Fu2(angelica anomala) Jian4(healthy) 苻健 351-355 (317-355), first called Pu2(cattail) Jian (蒲健)aka Jian4 (advocate) ye4(engage) (建业) direct Then came a severe king violent, arbitrary, and cruel ruler. Born in 335 to PuJian and Emress Qiang. Sheng was unripe blind in one eye. Stabbed eye when grandpa PuHong teased him. Strong and fierce in battle and killed wild beasts. Made Prince of Huainan in 351. Sheng was one of the generals sent against Huan Wen. Sheng killed many in battles but was not a good general. Fu Jian because of prophecy”3 goats should have 5 eyes” chose Sheng after Fu Chang died and Fu Liu was considered. Survived FuQing’s coup. Fujian’s will had many assist Sheng but all died under his violent rule except granduncle Fu An 苻安 the Prince of Wudu. Shot arrow at XinLao for not getting drunk at feast, killed Duan Chun for saying changing era name in mid-year was improper, Killed Yu Zun 鱼遵, his sons and grandsons, when he dreamt of large fish eating calamus (pu 蒲). Killed Mao Gui 毛贵, uncle of Fu Sheng's wife Empress Liang,Empress Liang, Liang An, and Liang Leng when astrologers prophesized that many high officials would be killed. Sheng was afraid of people making fun of him and outlawed words like "lacking," "slanted. Strong point was his unripeness 47.

Often drunk and slurred orders. Was an overstepping his severeness king: Cruelly treated animals (boiled/skinned alive: sometimes to humans) When Qiang Ping 强平(Qiang’s brother) rebuked him, he hammered his skull, then executed him. Fu Liu couldn’t convince regent Zhang Guan to make Zhang Xuanjing of F. Liang a vassal. Yao Xiang (姚襄), a rebel general tried to start own state and attacked F.Qin, but Deng Qiang 邓羌 and FuHuangmei 苻黄眉 the Prince of Guangping killed him. Sheng respected YaoXiang and Yao Yizhong (姚弋仲), his father, and buried them with honors and didn’t reward Huangmei, so Huangmei plotted but was found out, then executed. Suspicious of cousins Fu Jian and Fu Fa and thought about killing them but ladies in waiting told Fujian who quickly attacked palace where guards quickly surrendered and had Sheng deposed then executed. 2) Li4 (severe) Wang2 厉王 Fu2 Zheng1(unripe) 苻生 355-357 (335-357) 1st called Pu2 (cattail) Sheng1 (蒲生) aka Chang2(strong point)sheng1(unripe) (长生), formally Prince Li4(severe) of Yue(overstep) (越厉王) Then came one born to Fu Xiong 苻雄 and his wife Lady Gou. Grandpa was PuHong. Jian inherited father’s Prince of Donghai title in 354 when Xiong died campaigning. Older brother was Fufa 苻法Prince of Qinghe. Jian was filial, farsighted, knowledgeable, and able. Helped kill YaoXiang, but spared Yaochang, his brother. Jian met Wang Meng through official Lu Polou 吕婆楼 when planning to take over Sheng. Called himself 天王. Made wife Gou empress. Wangmeng,Fu Fa,Fu Rong the Duke of Yangping, his son Fu Pi the Duke of Changle, and his mother Empress Dow Gou's lover Li Wei 李威 were his advisors. Dow Gou feared FuFa and had him suicide. Wangmeng had Qiang De 强德Jian’s brother-in-law, a corrupt founding Emp of F. Qin executed.Hired talented officials. He declared that life should be clear. Ruled empire efficiently, and justly. Jian titled F.Liang ZhangTianxi, but he rebuked the title. Sheng’s brother FuTeng 48.

rebelled and was executed, Wangmeng advised to execute Sheng’s brothers苻幼, 苻柳, 苻叟, and 苻武 but Jian refused. Tried old Jin system of letting dukes hire own assistants but they hired the rich, so he stopped it. Let Xiongnu rebel chiefs Cao Gu 曹毂 and Liu Weichen 刘卫辰 live and keep command. 苻幼 rebelled, and killed by Li, while heir, FuHong苻宏 stayed at Chang’an. MurongKe, who took Luoyang was replaced with MurongPing, so Jian planned takeover of F.Yan, but first fought rebel brothers Fu Liu , Fu Sou, Fu Wu, and Fu Jian's brother Fu Shuang 苻双, who sought F.Yan aid, and Ping refused. HuanWen reached Fangtou枋头(almost Yecheng). F.Yan sought F.Qin aid,and promised giving Luoyang. Wang, in fear of Jin, advised to not conquer F.Yan, so Jian let Chui beat 1st attack, and together helped 2nd win, but F.Yan didn’t cede Luoyang, so Jian sent Wang with 60,000 after Chui defected to F.Qin. Wang took Luoyang, went through HuPass and took JinYang. Ping led 300,000,and met Wang at LuRiver, but lost morale(even though Wei rebuked him) so Wang won.Wei went to old capital Helong, but he and F.Yan, and the Xianbei were caught.Let FuRong control the east and Wang control the capital.Then Jian took Sichuan, Chongqing, and S.Shaanxi. He was resolute. Wang warned about the Xianbei,and Qiang and too many campaigns and died in 375, but Jian ignored it(and worked very hard alone) and began building palaces, and let corruption spread. Officials lied saying they had high yields of grain, but in 384 China had locusts.In 376 Jian took F.Liang from Zhang Tianxi.and in 376 he beat the Dai and let Tuoba Gui succeed Tuoba Shiyijian(grandpa) and Tuoba Shijun 拓拔□君(father). In 378 sent Fu Pi, Murong Wei, and Gou Chang 苟苌 to attack Jin city Xiangyang (襄阳 Xiangfan, Hubei). Fupi ordered to surround it, but Jian forced him to capture it in 379(or else suicide). Weixing (魏兴 Ankang, Shaanxi) also fell. Jian sent Peng Chao 彭超who after capturing Pengcheng (彭城 Xuzhou, Jiangsu), was defeated by the Jin general Xie Xuan and 49.

forced to abandon Pengcheng. Cousin Fu Luo (苻洛) the Duke of Xingtang rebelled(no reward for beating Dai), but Lu Guang crushed him and Jian exiled him.Wanted the culture to be pure: Spread the Di in empire. Brought FuRong home and had FuPi replace him. He was forever resolute. Jian had Battle of Fei(near Lu’an near Huai), FuRong against and Murong Chui and Yao Chang were for it. Jian not afraid of Yangtze. Caught Shouyang (寿阳, Lu'an, Anhui) on way and lost some troops there Xie Xuan and Liu Laozhi 刘牢之. Rong and Jian agreed with Xie to retreat, but troops panicked, Rong got trampled by a horse, Jian got an arrow. Chui had Jian send him to “calm his people” against Quan Yi ‘s 权翼 advice. FuPi distrusted Chui at Yecheng and sent the Di, FuFeilong 苻飞龙, whom Chui killed and took Luoyang with Zhaibin 翟斌 and MurongFeng 慕容凤.Then MurongHong(Prince of Jibei) started W.Yan, and Jian sent Fu Rui 苻□,Duke of Julu, with Yao Chang.Chang wanted to let Hong go, but Rui didn’t and Hong killed Rui so Chang sent the message to Jian who killed the Chang’s messengers then Chang ran away and called himself 万年秦王. Hong and MurongChong came to attack Chang’an and asked Jian to have Wei sent, but Wei asked Hong to attack, then Hong was killed and Chong was heir. Jian’s son Fu Hui 苻晖 abandoned Luoyang to aid Chang’an and all the East, except Yecheng was lost. Jin retook Chongqing, Sichuan, and S. Shaanxi. Sometimes XieXuan allied with FuPi against L.Yan. After Wei’s attempt to kill Jian at a feast, Jian killed Wei and all the Xianbei in Chang’an. Chong then declared himself Emp and defeated FuHui who after rebuked by Jian suicided, then Chang’an was in a famine and Jian went to Wujiang Mountain (五将山 Baoji, Shaanxi) to find food and left hier FuHong to guard but the city fled and Hong fled to Jin. Jian was caught by L. Qin and taken to Xinping (新平 Xianyang, Shaanxi) with consort Zhang, son FuShen苻诜, daughter(Jian killed them to avoid humiliation) FuBao苻宝, and FuJin苻锦. Jian refused to pass the thone to Chang, Then Chang 50.

ordered Jian strangled.Then Zhang and FuShen suicided.

3) Xuan1(declare) Zhao1(clear) Di4 宣昭帝 Fu2 Jian1 (resolute) 苻坚 357-385 (337-385) aka Yong3gu4(resolutley) (永固) or Wen2(culture)yu4(pure) 文玉 broadcasting holiness Then came his oldest son after Hong fled to Jin.He was talented in governing and in the military but less than FuRong. Pi defended Yecheng from Chui’s quick attack. He grieved alone when F.Qin fell. He had no peace: After Chui attacked again he fled to Jinyang 晋阳, Taiyuan, Shanxi where he declared himself Emp in 385. His PM Wang Yong (王永) (Wang Meng's son) called to meet at Linjin (临晋 Weinan, Shaanx, but no rendexouz happened. When M.Yong abandoned the Guanzhong area to go east,he refused to let them past and Wang Yong and Juqu Jushizi 沮渠俱石子 were killed and most of his officials and Empress Yang were caught. The only remaining power was cousin Fu Zuan 苻纂 the Prince of Donghai at Jinyang, but to avoid him Pi went to attack Luoyang to be great but Jin general Feng Gai (冯该) killed him in battle. Sons 苻宁, heir, and 苻寿 were caught and given to FuHong(jian’s heir), who surrendered toJin earlier. Sons 苻懿 and 苻昶 taken to (nephew) Fu Deng, who initially proposed making Fu Yi the Emp, but after his subordinates recommended that he take the throne himself, did so being a perpetual uncle. 4) Ai1(grief) Ping2(peace) Di4 哀平帝 Fu2Pi1(great) 苻丕 385-386 (died 386) aka Yong3(perpetual) shu1(uncle) (永叔) appended His nephew was born in 343, to Fu Chang(governor of F.Qin, killed by FuSheng 苻敞, grandnephew of F. Qin's founder Fu Jian, while still under L. Zhao rule). Jian made him magistrate of Chang’an then demoted him to magistrate of Didao (狄道, Dingxi, Gansu) making him a highly far Emp. After L.Qin started he served under general Mao Xing 毛兴 of W. Provinces, but soldiers deposed Mao and the later Wei Ping 卫平(old general), making Deng general, then FuPi made him a prince. He made FuYi heir,who died then made his son FuChong heir. He made a shrine of 51.

FuJian and was a master of square and circular formations successful against YaoChang, treading on him so Chang made and effigy, but cut off its head to send to Deng. He let Empress Mao guard Dajie (大界 Xianyang, Shaanxi, while capturing L. Qin's city of Pingliang. But Chang killed Empress Mao and his sons Fu Bian Fu Shang. 50,000 of Fu Deng's people were caught. When Chang got sick he attacked L. Qin city anding 安定, Pingliang, Gansu, but sick Chang stopped him. After Chang died he had brother 苻广 defend the base of Yongcheng (雍城 Baoji, Shaanxi) and Fu Chong defend the base of Hu Kong Castle (胡空堡 Xianyang, Shaanxi), but he forgot about water supplies. Yao Xing set up his army at Mawei (马嵬 Xianyang, Shaanxi) to prevent F. Qin forces from reaching the river near Mawei, and F. Qin forces collapsed in thirst. Upon hearing the defeat, Fu Guang and Fu Chong abandoned the two bases. He instead fled to Pingliang and then into the mountains. Fu Deng made Qifu Guoren, the Prince of Wanchuan signifying W.Qin’s submission. He sent his son Fu Zong to Qifu Gangui and married his sister the Princess Dongping to Qifu Gangui as his princess, seeking aid from Qifu Gangui. Qifu Gangui sent his general Qifu Yizhou 乞伏益州 to aid Fu Deng, but as Fu Deng came out of the mountains to join Qifu Yizhou's forces, Yao Xing ambushed and caught him, and then executed him. He disbanded Fu Deng's troops and gave Fu Deng's Empress Li to his general Yao Huang 姚晃. 5) Gao1(high) Di4 高帝 Fu2 Deng1(tread on) 苻登 386-394 (343 394) high Then came his son who defended the base of Hu Kong Castle (胡空堡 Xianyang, Shaanxi). When hearing of the troops collapse from thirst he abandoned the base then upon hearing his father's death he fled to Huangzhong (湟中 Xining, Qinghai), under Qifu Gangui's control, and declared himself Emp and made son Fu Xuan 苻宣 heir, But Gangui expelled him to one of his father’s last generals, Yang Ding 杨定 who joined him to attack Gangui, being lofty. Then Gangui sent 52.

the three generals Qifu Yizhou, Qifu Ketan 乞伏轲弹 and Yuezhi Jiegui 越质诘归 who then killed Yang and Fu Chong in battle. Fu Chong's heir FuXuan then fled to and allied with Yang Ding's cousin and successor Yang Sheng 杨盛, and he didn’t seek to reestablish F. Qin, ending F.Qin. Fu Xuan later led Yang Sheng’s army against L. Qin. In 413, he was forced by Jin to return to Yang's domain of Chouchi. 6) Fu2Chong 2(lofty) 苻崇 several months in 394 (?-394) j

[16] Hou (Later) Qin Empire 384 AD - 417 AD(3) First came the 24th son of 42 of Yao Yizhong 姚弋仲, who was a general and Qiang chief under the L. Zhao’s Shi Hu, but after L. Zhao's collapse Chang's older brother YaoXiang 姚襄 joined Jin but rebelled when YinYao was suspicious of him and tried to start an independent empire in the Luoyang region and Chang was fiercely clear(gave him his horse) to help him, but Huan Wen stopped him. Fu Sheng sent FuHuangmei 苻黄眉, FuDao 苻道, FuJian, and Deng Qiang 邓羌 to resist him he was killed. Then Chang became a F. Qin general, but after Jian's defeat at the Battle of Fei R. Chang feared that Fu Jian would kill him and so rebelled. He then killed Jian. He was intelligent and deliberate but not interested in details. He assisted WangMeng attack Jin's Jing Province (荆州 Hunan and CandS Hubei). With WangMeng attackied the rebels led by the Qiang, Lian Qi 敛岐,in E. Gansu, who were originally Yao Yizhong's subordinates anyways. Made governor of Longdong (陇东 Baoji, Shaanxi). Helped against Chouchi's ruler YangCuan 杨篡. After Jian beat it, he governed Ning Province (宁州 S. Sichuan). Helped GouChang 苟苌 in F. Qin's conquest of F. Liang. Helped siege Jin’s Xiangyang (襄阳 Xiangfan, Hubei). Jian made him Marquess of Yidu. Jian made him General Longxiang 龙骧将军 (same name Jian against Sheng) in Fei R. Battle, but Chang played no part. When M.Hong rebelled near Chang’an, Jian sent brother FuRui (苻□) and Chang against him. 53.

Chang said to let Hong go (return east), but Rui fought and died, then Chang sent Zhao Du (赵都) and Jiang Xie (姜协 to tell Jian, who killed them. In fear, Chang with the Qiang declared himself 万年秦王. Then he let W.Yan and F.Qin battle and made capital at Beidi (北地, Tongchuan, Shaanxi), Chang seiged Xinping (新平Xianyang, Shaanxi) and told Gou Fu 苟辅 that if he yielded he would let the people go to Chang’an, but Chang slaughtered all but 1 of the 5000. When Jian came to Wujiang Mountain (五将山 Baoji, Shaanxi) Chang sent general Wu Zhong 吴忠 to take him to Xinping to be asked the thron then strangled, being a long weed(traitor). Then Chang called him Zhuanglie (壮烈天王 when L.Qin people mourned him. Under M.Chong having Chang’an, people assassinated him then Deng Sui for not going east. Then M.Yi led them and Xiongnu, Hao Nu 郝奴 held Chang’an but easily surrendered to Chang, who made She empress and son YaoXing, heir. Then Chang fought with FuDeng. Chang used Deng’s cuautiousness against him, viewing the situation as luxuriant. When FuShinu 苻师奴 killed his brother FuZuan 苻纂 Chang defeated Shinu and seized his troops. Chang seized W.Yan’s cities west of YellowR. Made a surprise attack at night at Dajie (大界 Xianyang, Shaanxi), took it and Deng's wife Empress Mao and killed his sons FuBian 苻弁 and FuShang 苻尚. Chang wanted to make Mao his concubine, but she cursed him, so he executed her. When ill, Deng attacked anding (安定 Pingliang, Gansu), but Chang forced Deng to withdraw -- and then disengaged his troops. Deng said “What kind of a man is Yao Chang? I could not tell when he would go and when he would come. Everyone thought that he is near death, but he lives to fight. It is unfortunate that I live at the same time as this old Qiang.”Then Chang died. 1) Wu3(fierce) Zhao1(clear) Di4 武昭帝 Yao2 Chang2(carambola) 姚苌 384-393 (331-394) aka Jing3(situation) mao4(luxuriant) (景茂) Then came his son, a Buddhist who was 1st to give Buddhism state support. Monk 54.


Kumarajiva came to Chang’an in 401 and Xing made 90%Buddhist, culturally erecting as one starting. Dow Sun was mother but Chang’s Empress She raised him. Served Jian’s heir Fu Hong (苻宏). Was firm and gracious, deligent, efficient and studied much literature while at home base. At YaoFangcheng’s 姚方成 advice he killed captive F.Qin generals, but Chang was not angry. When F.Qin Deng fought L.Qin vassal DouChong 窦冲, Chang, at PM YinWei’s 尹纬 advice let Xing attack Deng. Chang told Xing when sick to trust Yin, YaoHuang(asked Chang about how to defeat F.Qin, but Chang said to ask Xing) 姚晃, Yao Damu 姚大目, and DiBozhi 狄伯支. Tried to keep secret of Chang death only to generals YaoXu 姚绪 and YaoShuode 姚硕德 and his brother YaoChong 姚崇 but Deng found out. Deng had brother 苻广 at Yongcheng and FuChong at Hu Kong Castle and forgot about the water supply. Xing put army at Mawei 马嵬 to guard its river which struck them with thirst, but they fought harder. Xing ordered Yin cautious, but Yin fought back fervently, and the F. Qin forces collapsed. Then Deng's brother 苻广 and son Fu Chong abandoned the bases. Deng then asked Gangui for help and he sent QifuYizhou 乞伏益州. Xing then ambushed and executed him. Gave Deng’s Empress Li to YaoHuang. L.Qin made peace with L.Yan, but helped TuobaGui(N.Wei) when M.Bao attacked and refused to help Bao when N.Wei attacked. Mourned Dow She greatly when she died.and wore mourning clothes for a long time. Encouraged the great: 1) Enlarged Qin territory. Xing sent brother YaoChong and general YangFoxong杨佛嵩 to capture Luoyang and other cities. 2)To show humility to gods demoted self to 天王 and others one rank. Went with uncle YaoShuode to beat Gangui who surrendered to Tufa Lilugu but then fled to L.Qin and Xing made him a marquis and let him defend Wanchuan. With ShuoDe’s advice made LuuLong of L.Liang submit as a vassal. When N.Wei fought vassal MoYigan 没奕干, relations broke and Xing refused marriage because Daowu had Murong as a wife. 55.

Xing then attacked N.Wei but front man YaoPing 姚平 was surrounded at Chaibi (柴壁 Linfen, Shanxi) then he and his army were caught. Made Shang Empress and YaoHong heir. Made LuuLong and LuuChao officials after L.Liang’s surrender. Switched back 12 commanderies(switched to L.Qin during Jin ciwil war) to LiuYu when asked in 405. Let Rutan take Guzang after gift of 3000 horses and 30000 sheep. Detained Gangui andmade Chipan governor. Made peace with N.Wei in 407 giving back caught generals. Helian Bobo declared Xia after father(LiuWeichen 刘卫辰) died to N.Wei. Gave M.Chao mother and wife for 1000 musicians and to be a vassal. QiaoZong, who took Jin's Yi (益州 Chongqing and Sichuan) and declared himself Prince of Chengdu became a vassal. Against WeiZong 韦宗 Xing sent son YaoBi 姚弼, Gangui and LianCheng 敛成 to attack Rutan, while having QiNan 齐难 to attack Xia. Yao Bi and YaoXian 姚显 defeated by Tufa Rutan and Qi’s army caught by Xia. Brother YaoChong 姚冲 posioned DiBozhi when he didn’t agree to attack Chang’an, then Chong was found and forced to suicide. Gangui escaped to Wanchuan and restarted W.Qin. When LiuYu asked to help fight S.Yan, Xing sent YaoQiang (姚强, who was nearl caught by HelianBobo. Then S.Yan fell to Jin. Xing sent GouLin 苟林 to join QiaoZong's HuanQian 桓谦 and QiaoDaofu 谯道福 to attack Jin's Jing (荆州 Hunan and C. Hubei), but LiuYu’s brother, LiuDaogui 刘道规) defeated them both and killed HuanQian and forcing Gou to flee. YaoBi tried to secretly undermine heir YaoHong beinga son scheming. Refused to attack W.Qin when QifuGongfu killed Gangui then battled Chipan. Made Qi empress when Zhang died. LiuYu’s Zhu Lingshi 朱龄石 destroyed QiaoZong's W.Shu made it Jin’s. Xing couldn’t aid it. YaoBi asked many officials of Xings to replace YaoHong with him. Xing, when heard, didn’t rebuke Yao Bi.

Xing grew very ill that year, and YaoBi planned a coup. Bi’s brother YaoYu told the other brothers YaoYi, YaoHuang, YaoChen, and YaoXuan, who prepared. 56.



Xing was forced to fire Yao Bi. The sons accused Bi, but Xing did nothing. Bi retailiated by falsely accusing. YaoXuan of crimes, and Xing arrested Xuan. Jin general Sima Xiuzhi 司马休之 escaped to L.Qin after LiuYu attacked him. Xing had him harass Jin borders, despite warnings the Simas would make a come back. Xing fell ill again, and Bi secretly gathered forces again to plan a coup. Xing found out and arrested Bi, but at YaoHong's urging did not execute him but instead released him. Xing daughter, the Princess Xiping, to N. Wei to marry Daowu's son Emp Mingyuan to affirm the alliance. But, Princess Xiping couldn’t forge a golden statue, as required by Tuoba Tribe traditions to be a sign of divine favor, to become an empress, so she was only created an imperial consort. Xing went on a trip to Huayin 华阴, near Chang'an, and fell ill on the trip and headed back to Chang'an. His attendant Yin Chong 尹冲 –(Yao Bi's helpers)─planned to assassinate YaoHong as YaoHong would come out of the city to welcome Xing. People persuaded Hong not to come out. Yin's assistant YaoShami 姚沙弥 tried to tell Yin to take Xing and join with YaoBi to seize power, but Yin hesitated. Then Xing gave the powers to YaoHong and arrested Bi. Xing's son YaoGeng'er 姚耕儿, believing that Xing had died, persuaded his brother YaoYin 姚□ to start a coup, and YaoYin joined YinChong to attack the palace, battling with YaoHong's troops. Xing, despite his illness, announced an edict to force Yao Bi to commit suicide.Then YaoYin’s troops abandoned Yao Yin. Xing entrusted YaoHong's administration to his brother YaoShao 姚绍, YinZhao 尹昭, and Lian Manwei 敛曼嵬 then died. 2) Wen2 (culture) Huan2 Di4 文桓帝 Yao2 Xing(encourage) 姚兴 394-416 (366-416) aka Zi(son )lue4(scheme) (子略) buddhist believer Then came his oldest son, the first. He was loving, kind, weak and often sick. He liked art and literature, a scholar. Stayed at Chang’an when Xing fought N.Wei and Xia, being a viscount. He beat rebel LiuJue 刘厥 at Chang’an. Hong’s brother YaoBi tried to undermine Hong and accused associate Yao Wenzong 姚文宗 of crimes. 57

Then Xing forced Wenzong to suicide. Bi tried a coup so Xing fired Bi. Bi falsely accused brother YaoXuan 姚宣, then Xing imprisoned him and gave his troops to Bi. When Bi plotted again Xing killed Bi’s associates and arrested Bi and was going to kill him but Hong stopped him. Xing went on a trip, then Ni planned to kill Hong when welcoming back Xing, but Xing had Bi’s place searched for weapons. When YaoYin tried to attack palace with YinChong, Xing had Bi publicly suicided. Before dying Xing entrusted Hong to brother YaoShao 姚绍, LiangXi, Yin Zhao, and LianManwei 敛曼嵬.Hong gave news of Xing’s death after executing YaoYin, LuuLong, YinYuan 尹元. and Bi's associates. Hong directly claimed himself Emp. Depended on uncle YaoShao to stop Jin, Xia and his brothers and cousins. LiuYu in 416 quickly caught E. L. Qin(Luoyang). YaoYi of Puban (蒲阪 Yuncheng, Shanxi), rebelled, but with little popular support, Yaoshao arrested him. Rebellions continued. Cousin YaoHui 姚恢 the Duke of Qi rebelled, leaving Anding (安定 Pingliang, Gansu) to fight Hong. But YaoShao and his son YaoZan 姚赞 quickly killed Hui .Shao and Zan then engaged LiuYu's generals TanDaoji and ShenLinzi 沈林子, but Shao,losing and humiliated, died of illness. Zan tried to continue , but was continuously defeated. Hong then led 10000s against Liu Yu's main army (Tan and Shen) but first attacked ShenLinzi's brother ShenTianzi 沈田子, with only 1,000 men, who was at Qingni (青泥 Xi'an, Shaanxi), poising to attack Hong’s rear. Hong’s army was defeated and they returned to Chang'an without having faced Liu Yu's main army. LiuYu's fleet, commanded by WangZhen'e 王镇恶, came to Chang'an they attacked the city gates overlooking the Wei River. Hong was in deep water. Hong tried to personally relieve the garrison at the city gates, but his army and the garrison force trampled themselves and collapsed without engaging Wang, and he fled back to the palace. Hong considered surrendering. His 10-year-old son YaoFo'nian 姚佛念 opted suicide. Hong declined, and Fo'nian himself jumped off the wall to his death. 58

Hong, with his empress, surrendered to Wang, who arrested him and delivered him to the Jin capital Jiankang. Hong and the most of the Yao clan were executed there, 3) Yao2 Hong2(of water: deep) 姚泓 416-417 (388-417) aka Yuan2(first) zi (scholar/viscount) (元子) accused.

[17] Xi (Western) Qin Kingdom 385-400,409-431(4) The first of this Xianbei state whose father QifuSifan 乞伏司繁 was defeated by F. Qin general WangTong 王统 and became a vassal. In 376 Sifan died and Guoren succeeded. Guoren was to serve at Battle of Fei R., but he was sent to stop uncle QifuButui 乞伏步颓 who rebelled, but they together started the W.Qin declaredly subsiding king. When Jian died, he declared himself chanyu. He made the country into a kernel: 12 commanderies and made capital Yongshicheng (勇士城 Lanzhou, Gansu). In next two years had more Xianbei come into and expand his kingdom. FuDeng made him the vassal, Prince of Wanchuan. He died in 388 and had brother QifuGangui succeed, intead of his young son QifuGongfu. 1)Xuan1(declare) Lie4(subside) Wang2 宣烈王 Qi3(beg)fu2(bend over/lie prostrate /hot season/admit guilt/volt) Guo2 (country) ren2 (kernel) 乞伏国仁 385-388 (died 388), formally Prince Xuanlie of Wanchuan 苑川宣烈王called. His brother expanded state power and leadership a little. His military strategies exposed weaknesses. As a general of Guoren he beat F.Qin’s WangGuang 王广. Gangui declared himself Grand Chanyu and Prince of Henan(not really Henan). Made Bian Princess. Designed government after the Han Dynasty the first . Used pressure to get other Xianbei, Qiang and Han submit. Moved capital from Yongshi (勇士城 Lanzhou, Gansu) to Jincheng (Lanzhou). Deng made him Prince of Jincheng(weaker than Prince of Henan). The khan of Tuyuhun, MurongShilian 慕容视连 submitted as a vassal and Gangui made him Prince of Bailan, but after he died his son MurongShipi 慕容视罴 ambitiously rejected the title. Gangui personally stoped general 59.

Yuezhi Jiegui 越质诘归, who rebelled, then married a clansmen to him (Gangui’s had a tendency to do this). MoYigan 没奕干 sent Gangui his 2 sons then they together beat Da Dou 大兜 and Gangui gave him back his sons, but MoYigan allied with Xiongnu chief Liu Weichen (刘卫辰, then Gangui fought Mo and fired and arrow in his eye and at this battle, LuuGuang of L.Liang began battling him for many years. Made Chipan crown prince in 393. FuDeng who prepared to fight YaoXing made Gangui Prince of Henan and gave him the 9 bestowments., but Deng failed and brother FuGuang 苻广 and son FuChong abandoned his bases. Deng married Dongping to Gangui and made him Prince of Liang.Gangui sent brother QifuYizhou 乞伏益州 to aid him but Xing ambushed and killed him. FuChong fled to Huangzhong (湟中 Xining, Qinghai), under Gangui’s control, but Gangui expelled him so he went to father’s last general, YangDing 杨定 of Longxi. Gangui sent QifuYizhou, QifuKetan 乞伏轲弹, and YuezhiJiegui who killed them both. Then called himself Prince of Qin. He sent QifuYizhou(became arrogant) to attack Di chief JiangRu 姜乳, but Yizhou was defeated. Moved capital to Xicheng (西城 Baiyin, Gansu). When LuGuang attacked Q.Qin, from advice of MiGuizhou 密贵周 and MozheGudi 莫者□羝, he became a vassal of L.Liang and sent son QifuChibo 乞伏敕勃 as a hostage then Guang withdrew, but Gangui executed MiGuiShou and MoZheGudi. Then Guang attacked and officials advised a retreat to Chengji (成纪 Tianshui, Gansu), but Gangui stood ground and trapped and killed Guang’s brother LuYan 吕延 making him think he was retreating. Then Guang retreated to Guzang. QifuYizhou beat MurongShipi so he sent son MurongDangqi 慕容宕岂 as hostage then Gangui married a clanmen’s daughter to MurongShipi. Moved capital to Wanchuan (苑川 Baiyin). In 400 1st YaoShuode then Yaoxing majorily attacked W.Qin. 60.

Xing came to Fuhan then Gangui fled to Jincheng. He then told his officials to surrender then he fled to Liligu. Liligu’s brother TufaJuyan 秃发俱延 suggested they exile him to Yifu 乙弗 tribe, W.of Qinghai lake, but Lilugu instead sent an army to watch him, then Gangui sent Chipan and their brothers and mother as hostage. But he went to Fuhan and surrendered to L.Qin and Yao made him Marquess of Guiyi and let him guard Wanshuan with his army. In 401 he went with Yaoshuode againt LuuLong. In 402 Chipan fled to Wanchuan, then Rutan sent his wife(Rutan’s daughter) and children to him. In 403, Gangui escorted LuLong to Chang’an and WangShang 王尚 to Guzang. Gangui then independently attacked Murong Dahai (慕容大孩, khan of Tuyuhun and L.Qin vassal YangSheng 杨盛,of Chouchi. In 407, Xing detained him as minister in Chang’an and let Chipan rule Wanchuan. Xing sent Gangui and YaoBi 姚弼 against Rutan, but Rutan beat them and declared independence. Gangui escaped then declared W.Qin, sovereignly came back and changed era name and again made Bian princess and Chipan heir and made capital Dujianshan (度坚山 Baiyin, Gansu). Caught Jincheng in 410, then moved capital back to Wanchuan.He caught many L.Qin commanderies then returned captives and Xing made him Prince of Henan but then he caught more. Then moved capital to to Tanjiao (谭郊 Linxia Hui Autonomous Prefecture, Gansu). Then QifuGongfu (Guoren’s son) killed him and 10 or more of his sons. Then Chipan killed Gongfu and became Prince of Wenzhao. 2) Wu3(military)Yuan2(first) Wang2 武元王 Qi3fu2fu2 (Qian2 sovereign)Gangui1(go back to) 乞伏乾归 388-400, 409-412 (died 412), Prince Wuyuan of Henan (河南武元王) assassinated betrayer Then came his oldest son. W. Byhis culture he was obviously king. He was brave, intelligent and more capable than Gangui, who made JiaoYi 焦遗 his teacer. He was a flaming rock When under Qin, he built a castle at Kanglang Mountain (in Lanzhou, Gansu) for L.Qin for defense. 61.

After Gangui was killed by Gongfu, he sent brothers QifuZhida 乞伏智达 and QifuMuyigan 乞伏木奕干 to attack Gongfu at Daxia (大夏 Linxia ). Then Zhida executued Gongfu, his sons, and his brother QifuAchai 乞伏阿柴. He caught Fuhan from L.Qin’s PengXi'nian 彭奚念Qin reached its prime after he destroyed and seized the territory of S. Liang with brother Qifu Shenqian 乞伏审虔 capturing 100,000 ,TufaHutai 秃发虎台, and animals in 414. Beheaded Rutan’s messengers when Rutan wanted him to join him.Later while Rutan was fighting tribes, he caught Hutai and Rutan. He betrayed Rutan who saved him before. Allied with N. Wei(favored because emperors were capable) against Xia. But N.Liang’s (JuquMengxun) persuaded HelianChang to send WeiFa 韦伐 to beat .Qin’s Nan'an 南安(Dingsu.Gansu). Then Xia’s HuluGu 呼卢古 and Weifa beat Fuhan and Chipan made Dinglian (定连 Linxia) capital. Then they took Xiping (西平 Xining, Qinghai), When heard that N.Wei’s took Tongwan (统万 Yulin, Shaanxi) and forced Helian Chang to flee to Shanggui (上□ Tianshui, Gansu) he sent uncle Qifu Wotou (乞伏握头) to offer tributes to N. Wei. Had heir Mumo try peace with N. Liang by returning advisor JuquChengdu 沮渠成都. 3) Wen2(culture) Zhao1(obvious) Wang 文昭王 Qi3fu2 Chi4(flaming)pan2 (rock) 乞伏炽磐 412-428 (died 428) ably firm Then came his son, having his dusk be at the tip. He had a violent temper. In 424, Chipan sent him and uncle QifuMuyigan 乞伏木奕干 to a victory over N.Liang. After father died, hre rebuked uncle QifuQiannian 乞伏千年, a drunk who ignored his duties, and afraid, he fled to N. Liang. After he sent JuquChengdu 沮渠成都, N.Liang and W.Qin entered peace. But months later, Mengxun took Xiping. Mumo made Liang princess, and son QifuWanzai 乞伏万载 heir. When official XinJin 辛进 fired slingshots and injured Mumo’s mother accidently while Mumo hunted. 62.

Mumo returned and exexcuted him and 27 others related to him. When Mengxun attacked again, he let unlce Qifu Yuanji 乞伏元基 guard Fuhan, while he went to Dinglian At Dinglian he dealt with rebels ZhaiChengbo 翟承伯 and Mozhe Yojuan 莫者幼眷 and when Mengxun’s heir JuquXingguo attacked Dinglian, he caught him. Then he fought off joint attack from N.Liang and Tuyuhun's general MurongMuliyan 慕容慕利延. Refused to trade grain for Xingguo. Then married sister, Pingchang, to Xingguo. When Mumo’s brother QifuKeshuluo 乞伏轲殊罗 had affair with Chipan’s concubine Tufa, Mumo secured the palace, but Keshuluo plotted with uncle QifuShiyin 乞伏什寅 to kill Mumo and take Xingguo and go to N.Liang by having Tufa steal Mumo’s bed keys, but they took wrong ones, then Mumo spared Keshuoluo but killed his associates and whipped Shiyin. When Shiyin said “IOU life, not whipping”, Mumo cut his abdomen and threw him in the river. When other uncles QifuBaiyang 乞伏白养 and QifuQulie 乞伏去列 complained of this, Mumo killed them too. In 429 was a big earthquake and in 430 was a big drought. He sent Wang Kai 王恺 and WunaTian 乌讷阗 to ask N.Wei escort him there, then Daiwu said after he beat Xia he would give Mumo Xia’s Pingliang 平凉 and Anding 安定 to him. Mumo burned treasury and Fuhan and went with 15000 houses to join N.Wei at Shanggui (上□ Tianshui, Gansu), but HelianDing stopped him so they stayed at Nan'an. (and it was all he could hold because Tuyuhun had everything west). When N.Wei’s KuruguanJie 库_官结 came to escort, but general QifuJipi 乞伏吉毗 persuaded him he should stay and hold ground, staying at the southern peaceful rock before crossing the mountains. Then the Qiang, JiaoLiang 焦亮 rebelled and Mumo had YangNandang 杨难当, ruler of Chouchi help beat him. JiaoLiang was killed by uncle JiaoYi 焦遗. After beating Yang, Ding’s uncle HelianWeifa 赫连韦伐 seiged Nan’an and Mumo surrendered.
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